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Die Reform der EU-Marktordnung für Bananen: Lösungsansätze eines fairen Handels unter Berücksichtigung der Interessen von Kleinproduzenten

  • Osório-Peters, Suhita
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    Die Entscheidung des WTO-Panels im Jahr 1997 über die Nicht-Konformität der Gemeinsamen Marktordnung für Bananen (GMOB) mit den WTO/GATI-Prinzipien löste in der EU eine heftige Diskussion um die Reformmodalitäten des Bananenregimes aus. Im Mittelpunkt der Diskussion um die Reform der GMOB standen zuerst einerseits Modelle, die ausschließlich auf einer Differenzierung der Zolltarife basieren und andererseits Modelle, die eine Kombination von Zolltarifen und Mengenkontingentierung (Quoten) darstellen. Aus GATT-Sicht sind tarifäre Maßnahmen grundsätzlich zu bevorzugen, da sie theoretisch den geringsten Eingriff in das Marktgeschehen darstellen. Aber auch eine Restriktion der Importmengen schlägt sich theoretisch ebenfalls wie ein Zoll - in eine Preiserhöhung dieser Güter nieder. Beide Maßnahmen wirken schließlich durch eine Veränderung der Nachfrage aufgrund einer intendierten Veränderung der Preisrelationen. Daher liegt aus ökonomischer Sicht der Hauptunterschied zwischen beiden Maßnahmen (Zölle und Quoten) weniger in ihrer Allokationwirkung (Markteffizienz) als in der Verteilungsproblematik, die sie erzeugen.

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    Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Dokumentationen with number 98-07.

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    Date of creation: 1998
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdok:9807
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    1. Melvin, James R, 1986. "The Nonequivalence of Tariffs and Import Quotas," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1131-34, December.
    2. Robert A. Feldman & Vincent Reinhart, 1996. "Auction Format Matters: Evidence on Bidding Behavior and Seller Revenue," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(2), pages 395-418, June.
    3. Roland Herrmann, 1999. "Economic Impacts of the New European Banana Market Regime: The Case of Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 218(1+2), pages 63-84, January.
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