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National identity and support for European integration

  • Marks, Gary
  • Hooghe, Liesbet
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    This paper takes up the familiar question of how one can explain support for European integration. One line of explanation builds on trade theory to theorize a calculus of economic costs and benefits. A second explanation draws on cognitive and social psychology to assess how individuals use political cues - grounded in ideology or elite communication - as a guide to complex issues. A third line draws on the psychology of group membership to consider how group identities, above all, national identities, bear on support for European integration. We use multi-level analysis to evaluate these explanations, and we conclude that perceptions of national identity are by far most powerful in structuring views on European integration. We find that the particular perception of national identity matters, as well as how identity is mobilized in national contexts. Thus, while strong national identity is consistent with support for European integration, exclusive national identity is a powerful brake on support. The effect of exclusive national identity varies across countries. It is strongest in countries where referenda on European integration have taken place. Referenda exacerbate conflicts within and among elites and empower single-issue anti-European protest movements, and this mobilizes exclusive national identity in an anti-European direction.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Democracy and Democratization with number SP IV 2003-202.

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    Date of creation: 2003
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbdsc:spiv2003202
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    1. Brigid Laffan, 1996. "The Politics of Identity and Political Order in Europe," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(1), pages 81-102, 03.
    2. Alistair Cole, 2001. "National and Partisan Contexts of Europeanization: The Case of the French Socialists," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 15-36, 03.
    3. Thomas Faist, 2001. "Social Citizenship in the European Union: Nested Membership," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 37-58, 03.
    4. Karl Magnus Johansson, 2002. "Another Road to Maastricht: The Christian Democrat Coalition and the Quest for European Union," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(5), pages 871-893, December.
    5. Eichenberg, Richard C. & Dalton, Russell J., 1993. "Europeans and the European Community: the dynamics of public support for European integration," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(04), pages 507-534, September.
    6. Kenneth Scheve & Matthew Slaughter, 2002. "Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production," NBER Working Papers 9339, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ernest Gnan & Peter Egger & Morten Balling, 2013. "Introduction," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    8. Scharpf, Fritz W., 2000. "The viability of advanced welfare states in the international economy. Vulnerabilities and options," European Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(03), pages 399-425, July.
    9. MARK FRANKLIN & MICHAEL MARSH & LAUREN McLAREN, 1994. "Uncorking the Bottle: Popular Opposition to European Unification in the Wake of Maastricht," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(4), pages 455-472, December.
    10. Esping-Andersen, Gosta, 1999. "Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198742005, March.
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