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Macroeconomic effects of personal and functional income inequality: Theory and empirical evidence for the US and Germany

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  • Prante, Franz J.

Abstract

This paper presents a simple illustrative post-Kaleckian model of distribution and growth that incorporates personal income inequality and interdependent social norms. The model shows in an easily accessible manner how personal and functional income inequality can potentially have contrary effects on aggregate demand and growth. It can illustrate some of the major domestic developments that took place in different countries in the decades prior to the Great Recession and which were connected to inequality and country specific consumption and saving behaviour. Furthermore, aggregate consumption functions are estimated for the United States and Germany. The finding of previous studies regarding a higher elasticity of aggregate consumption with respect to wage income than with respect to profit income is confirmed. We find positive long-run effects of personal income inequality on consumption in the US. The effect is strongest for the top 10% income share and the Gini index and less strong for the top 5% and 1% income shares. While this is evidence for relative consumption patterns, it also supports the view that the 'super rich' are a somewhat distant strata for most people - questioning the notion of expenditure cascades from the very top to the very bottom of the distribution. For Germany, we fail to find compelling evidence for substantial effects of personal income distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Prante, Franz J., 2017. "Macroeconomic effects of personal and functional income inequality: Theory and empirical evidence for the US and Germany," IPE Working Papers 83/2017, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ipewps:832017
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Eckhard Hein & Eckhard Achim Truger, 2017. "Opportunities and limits of rebalancing the Eurozone via wage policies," FMM Working Paper 06-2017, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    2. Hein, Eckhard & Prante, Franz, 2018. "Functional distribution and wage inequality in recent Kaleckian growth models," IPE Working Papers 110/2018, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    3. Barbieri Góes, Maria Cristina, 2019. "Personal income distribution and progressive taxation in a neo-Kaleckian model: Insights from the Italian case," IPE Working Papers 126/2019, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    4. Köhler, Kasper, 2018. "The limits to profit-wage redistribution: Endogenous regime shifts in Kaleckian models of growth and distribution," IPE Working Papers 112/2018, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income inequality; Personal and functional income distribution; Demand and growth regimes; Relative income hypothesis; Kaleckian model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D33 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Factor Income Distribution
    • E11 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Marxian; Sraffian; Kaleckian
    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian; Modern Monetary Theory
    • E25 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

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