Female wage profiles: An additive mixed model approach to employment breaks due to childcare
The paper investigates female wage profiles in West-Germany between 1984 and 2008 using data from the German Socio Economic Panel. The empirical study focuses on the short-run wageloss due to childcare and the long-run wage-profile in post-birth employment, respectivly. This is compared with wage profiles from females who are not mothers. As statistical analysis tool Additive Mixed Models are employed and estimated seperatetly for different levels of educational achievements. The models are dynamic in that main covariate effects are allowed to vary smoothly with working experience. The intention of the paper is to demonstrate with state of the art statistical models how wages are affected by labour market experience, employment interruptions and other covariates. The educational level of the mother and the time off the job influence the amount of wageloss and the wage profile afterwards. Labour market experience, as one major determinant of human capital, influences wages heavily and follows a dynamic patter.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Heimhuder Str. 71, D-20148 Hamburg|
Phone: +49 (0)40 34 05 76 - 0
Fax: +49 (0)40 34 05 76 - 776
Web page: http://www.hwwi.org/en/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bloemen, Hans & Kalwij, Adriaan S., 2001. "Female labor market transitions and the timing of births: a simultaneous analysis of the effects of schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 593-620, December.
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974.
"Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women,"
in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S76-S108, Part II, .
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lundberg, Shelly & Rose, Elaina, 2000. "Parenthood and the earnings of married men and women," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 689-710, November.
- Marco Francesconi, 2002. "A Joint Dynamic Model of Fertility and Work of Married Women," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(2), pages 336-380, Part.
- Ruppert,David & Wand,M. P. & Carroll,R. J., 2003. "Semiparametric Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521780506, October.
- Christian Belzil, 1995. "Unemployment Duration Stigma and Re-employment Earnings," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 568-85, August.
- Beblo, Miriam & Wolf, Elke, 2000. "How much does a year off cost? Estimating the wage effects of employment breaks and part-time periods," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-69, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Ruppert,David & Wand,M. P. & Carroll,R. J., 2003. "Semiparametric Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521785167, October.
- Polachek,Solomon W. & Siebert,W. Stanley, 1993. "The Economics of Earnings," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521367288, October.
- Bernd Fitzenberger & Gaby Wunderlich, 2004.
"The Changing Life Cycle Pattern In Female Employment: A Comparison Of Germany And The Uk,"
Scottish Journal of Political Economy,
Scottish Economic Society, vol. 51(3), pages 302-328, 08.
- Fitzenberger, Bernd & Wunderlich, Gaby, 2002. "The changing life cycle pattern in female employment: a comparison of Germany and the UK," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-70, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007.
"The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP): Scope, Evolution and Enhancements,"
SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research
1, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) – Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 127(1), pages 139-169.
- Kuhlenkasper, Torben & Kauermann, Göran, 2010. "Duration of maternity leave in Germany: A case study of nonparametric hazard models and penalized splines," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 466-473, June.
- Simon Burgess & Paul Gregg & Carol Propper & Elizabeth Washbrook & ALSPAC Study Team, 2002.
"Maternity Rights and Mothers' Return to Work,"
The Centre for Market and Public Organisation
02/055, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Jan Ondrich & C. Spiess & Qing Yang & Gert Wagner, 2003. "The Liberalization of Maternity Leave Policy and the Return to Work after Childbirth in Germany," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 77-110, January.
- Wong, Chi-ming & Kohn, Robert, 1996. "A Bayesian approach to additive semiparametric regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 209-235, October.
- Munasinghe, Lalith & Reif, Tania & Henriques, Alice, 2008. "Gender gap in wage returns to job tenure and experience," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1296-1316, December.
- Duncan, Otis Dudley, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women: Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S109-S110, Part II, .
- repec:iza:izadps:dp509 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:hwwirp:2-18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.