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Macroeconomic Sources of Equity Risk

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  • P N Smith
  • S Sorensen
  • M R Wickens

Abstract

There are very few estimates of a time-varying equity risk premium based on models that satisfy a no-arbitrage condition. The main aim of this paper is to estimate the US and UK equity risk premia implied by a number of well-known asset pricing models using monthly data for 1975-2001. The models include consumption-based CAPM with power utility, the Epstein-Zin general equilibrium model with time non-separable preferences, CAPM, and the SDF model. We show that most of the theoretical models of the equity risk premium that have been proposed in the literature are special cases the SDF model. We explain why some of them are unable to do this as formulated. In addition to examining existing theories of the equity risk premium, we use the SDF model to generate new theories. We find that macroeconomic variables not previously considered, and not consistent with standard general equilibrium theory, such as production, appear to be priced for the equity risk premium. This suggests that traditional general equilibrium considerations may not be the sole explanation for the equity risk premium; other short-term factors associated with pure price risk may also be involved. A related, and rapidly growing, literature adopts a more statistical approach. It focusses on the empirical relation between the return on equity (or the Sharpe ratio) and return volatility. We use SDF theory to show that this relation is misconceived. The reason for the absence of estimates of the equity risk premium is the difficulty of estimating it. Most of the empirical evidence on these asset pricing models is based on calibration, or the estimation of the Euler equation by GMM, neither of which delivers an estimate of the risk premium. We use a new empirical approach that does produce estimates of the risk premium and allows tests of the theories. As a result we provide the first estimates of the equity risk premium for some of these models. We then use our estimates to investigate the importance of different components of the equity risk premium including, amongst others, return volatility.

Suggested Citation

  • P N Smith & S Sorensen & M R Wickens, "undated". "Macroeconomic Sources of Equity Risk," Discussion Papers 03/13, Department of Economics, University of York.
  • Handle: RePEc:yor:yorken:03/13
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mehra, Rajnish & Prescott, Edward C., 1985. "The equity premium: A puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 145-161, March.
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    3. Epstein, Larry G. & Zin, Stanley E., 1990. "'First-order' risk aversion and the equity premium puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 387-407, December.
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    8. John T. Scruggs, 1998. "Resolving the Puzzling Intertemporal Relation between the Market Risk Premium and Conditional Market Variance: A Two-Factor Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 575-603, April.
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    13. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter N Smith & S Sorensen & M R Wickens, 2005. "The asymmetric effect of the business cycle on the relation between stock market returns and their volatility," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 47, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    2. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis, 2016. "Factors Affecting the Exchange Rate Risk Premium," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(6), pages 1-3.
    3. Pierre Monnin, "undated". "Are stock markets really like beauty contests? Empirical evidence of higher order belief's impact on asset prices," IEW - Working Papers 202, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    4. Renatas Kizys & Peter Spencer, 2007. "Assessing the Relation between Equity Risk Premia and Macroeconomic Volatilities," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2006 140, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    5. Evžen Koèenda & Tigran Poghosyan, 2010. "Exchange Rate Risk in Central European Countries," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 60(1), pages 22-39, February.
    6. Peter N Smith & Steffen Sorensen & Mike Wickens, 2007. "The Asymmetric Effect of the Business Cycle on the Equity Premium (This is an extensively revised version of earlier paper No. 06/04)," Discussion Papers 07/11, Department of Economics, University of York.
    7. P N Smith & S Sorensen & M R Wickens, "undated". "An Asset Market Integration Test Based on Observable Macroeconomic Stochastic Discount Factors," Discussion Papers 03/14, Department of Economics, University of York.
    8. Vit Posta, 2012. "Time-Varying Risk Premium in the Czech Capital Market: Did the Market Experience a Structural Shock in 2008–2009?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 62(5), pages 450-470, November.
    9. Bernard Walley, 2015. "Macroeconomic sources of foreign exchange risk premium: evidence from South Africa," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 39(2), pages 382-395, April.
    10. Kocenda, Evzen & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2009. "Macroeconomic sources of foreign exchange risk in new EU members," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2164-2173, November.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

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