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Ecological Footprint Inequality across countries: the role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects

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  • Juan Antonio Duro

    () (Department of Economics, CREIP and XREAP, Rovira i Virgili University)

  • Jordi Teixidó-Figueras

    () (Department of Economics, CREIP and XREAP, Rovira i Virgili University)

Abstract

Recently, White (2007) analysed the international inequalities in Ecological Footprints per capita (EF hereafter) based on a two-factor decomposition of an index from the Atkinson family (Atkinson (1970)). Specifically, this paper evaluated the separate role of environment intensity (EF/GDP) and average income as explanatory factors for these global inequalities. However, in addition to other comments on their appeal, this decomposition suffers from the serious limitation of the omission of the role exerted by probable factorial correlation (York et al. (2005)). This paper proposes, by way of an alternative, a decomposition of a conceptually similar index like Theil’s (Theil, 1967) which, in effect, permits clear decomposition in terms of the role of both factors plus an inter-factor correlation, in line with Duro and Padilla (2006). This decomposition might, in turn, be extended to group inequality components (Shorrocks, 1980), an analysis that cannot be conducted in the case of the Atkinson indices. The proposed methodology is implemented empirically with the aim of analysing the international inequalities in EF per capita for the 1980-2007 period and, amongst other results, we find that, indeed, the interactive component explains, to a significant extent, the apparent pattern of stability observed in overall international inequalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Juan Antonio Duro & Jordi Teixidó-Figueras, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality across countries: the role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects," Working Papers XREAP2012-17, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Oct 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:xrp:wpaper:xreap2012-17
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. White, Thomas J., 2007. "Sharing resources: The global distribution of the Ecological Footprint," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 402-410, December.
    2. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-625, April.
    3. Duro, Juan Antonio, 2012. "On the automatic application of inequality indexes in the analysis of the international distribution of environmental indicators," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-7.
    4. Andersson, Jan Otto & Lindroth, Mattias, 2001. "Ecologically unsustainable trade," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 113-122, April.
    5. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
    6. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
    7. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-920, July.
    8. van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M. & Verbruggen, Harmen, 1999. "Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the 'ecological footprint'," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 61-72, April.
    9. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers 2072/203168, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    10. Steinberger, Julia K. & Krausmann, Fridolin & Eisenmenger, Nina, 2010. "Global patterns of materials use: A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1148-1158, March.
    11. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, pages 170-187.
    12. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
    13. repec:wsi:jeapmx:v:12:y:2010:i:01:n:s1464333210003528 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mohammad Iqbal Irfany, 2015. "Inequality in emissions: Evidence from Indonesian households," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 177, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    2. Ferng, Jiun-Jiun, 2014. "Nested open systems: An important concept for applying ecological footprint analysis to sustainable development assessment," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 105-111.
    3. repec:kap:enreec:v:67:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10640-015-9994-x is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Grunewald, Nicole & Jakob, Michael & Mouratiadou, Ioanna, 2014. "Decomposing inequality in CO2 emissions: The role of primary energy carriers and economic sectors," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, pages 183-194.
    5. Teixidó-Figueras, J. & Duro, J.A., 2014. "Spatial Polarization of the Ecological Footprint Distribution," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 93-106.
    6. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers XREAP2012-15, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2012.
    7. Teixidó-Figueras, Jordi & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2015. "The building blocks of International Ecological Footprint inequality: A Regression-Based Decomposition," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 30-39.
    8. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Duro, 2015. "International Ecological Footprint Inequality: A Methodological Review and Some Results," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, pages 607-631.
    9. Mohammad Iqbal Irfany & Stephan Klasen, 2016. "Inequality in emissions: evidence from Indonesian household," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 18(4), pages 459-483, October.
    10. Salahuddin, Mohammad & Gow, Jeff, 2014. "Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 44-58.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ecological footprint; international environmental distribution; inequality decomposition.;

    JEL classification:

    • D39 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Other
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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