Duality Theory for Variable Costs in Joint Production
Duality methods for incomplete systems of consumer demand equations are adapted to the dual structure of variable cost functions in joint production. This allows the identification of necessary and sufficient restrictions on technology and cost so that the conditional factor demands can be written as functions of input prices, fixed inputs, and cost. These are observable when the variable inputs are chosen and committed to production, hence the identified restrictions allow ex ante conditional demands to be studied using observable data. This class of production technologies is consistent with all von Neumann-Morgenstern utility functions when ex post production is uncertain.
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