Long- term poverty and child development in the United States: Results from the NLSY
The authors describe developmental deficits in early childhood associated with long-term poverty in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). They compare estimates of the effects of long-term poverty (based on a thirteen-year average of income) to estimates of the effects of poverty based on a single year of income (at the time of developmental assessment). They find substantial developmental deficits among children who, on average, are poor over a number of years relative to those who are not. These deficits are approximately twice as large according to the long-term income measure as compared to those based on the single- year measure, and are not explained by differences in maternal education, family structure, maternal behaviors during pregnancy, infant health, nutritional status, or age of mother at first birth. However, an index of the home environment accounts for one-third to one-half of the developmental disadvantages (net of other factors) of children who experience long-term poverty.
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- Sheldon Danziger & Jonathan Stern, 1990. "Causes and Consequences of Child Poverty in the United States," Papers iopeps90/35, Innocenti Occasional Papers, Economic Policy Series.
- Desai, S. & Michael, R.T. & Chase-Landale, P.L., 1990. "The Home Environment : A Mechanism Through which Maternal Employment Affects Child Development," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 90-9, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 1993.
"Children's Prospects and Children's Policy,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 153-174, Fall.
- R. Haveman & B. Wolfe, . "Children's prospects and children's policy," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1010-93, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Zimmerman, David J, 1992. "Regression toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 409-29, June.
- Janet Currie & Nancy Cole, 1991. "Does Participation in Transfer Programs During Pregnancy Improve Birth Weight?," NBER Working Papers 3832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mary Jo Bane & David T. Ellwood, 1986. "Slipping into and out of Poverty: The Dynamics of Spells," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-23.
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