IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The examination of the regional level entrepreneurship: The Spanish case


  • László Szerb


  • Raquel Ortega-Argilés
  • Zoltán à cs
  • Alicia Coduras


The purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of regional economic development by constructing a regional entrepreneurship index that captures the essence of the contextual features of entrepreneurship and fills a gap in the measurement of economic and social development in the cases where high heterogeneity is found in the entrepreneurial climate between countries and regions. This paper builds on Acs and Szerb (2011) and aims to provide a regional application of the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI). Originally the GEDI has been developed to measure national level of entrepreneurship. The GEDI refers to the contextual feature of entrepreneurship by focusing on the twelve pillars of entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial action and entrepreneurial aspirations. The country level index construction integrates 31 variables, 16 from the GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data) adult population survey, and 15 from other data sources, into 14 pillars, three sub indexes and a 'super index'. One of the most important finding of Acs and Szerb (2011) is that the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development appears to be mildly S-shaped. The model has important implications for development policy. The regional application of the GEDI is relatively straightforward, since the GEM related individual variables are available in regional levels for a few countries, including Spain. The key element of the regional entrepreneurship index construction is to find regional level institutional data that are available also in the country level. Out of the 15 institutional variables we apply for the entrepreneurship index construction 10 are available in the NUTS-2 regional levels that is the same or very similar to the country level variables. Because of the lack of the remaining four pillars we used the Spanish country level variables. While the overall regional level entrepreneurship and development index for the Spanish regions are calculated as benchmarking the country level pillars the analysis focuses on comparing 17 Spanish autonomous regions. This paper provides tailor-made entrepreneurship policy suggestions for the different autonomous Spanish regions by showing the relatively weak and strong points of their entrepreneurial climate. For an optimum configuration of a public policy to improve entrepreneurship we suggest different levels of public policy as national, multi- and single levels depending on the deviation of a particular pillar from the best benchmarking value and on how many regions are affected by the weakness of a particular pillar. Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Regional Development, Regional Policy JEL: L26, R11, R58

Suggested Citation

  • László Szerb & Raquel Ortega-Argilés & Zoltán à cs & Alicia Coduras, 2012. "The examination of the regional level entrepreneurship: The Spanish case," ERSA conference papers ersa12p781, European Regional Science Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p781

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Klepper, Steven, 2010. "The origin and growth of industry clusters: The making of Silicon Valley and Detroit," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 15-32, January.
    2. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 1997. "Exports and success in German manufacturing," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(1), pages 134-157, March.
    3. Zoltán Ács & Attila Varga, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 323-334, February.
    4. Antonio Golpe & Andre van Stel, 2007. "Self-Employment and Unemployment in Spanish Regions in the Period 1979-2001," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-021, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    5. Martin Andersson & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Per Thulin, 2012. "Creative destruction and productivity: entrepreneurship by type, sector and sequence," Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(2), pages 125-146, October.
    6. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2007. "The persistence of regional new business formation-activity over time – assessing the potential of policy promotion programs," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 299-315, June.
    7. Dale W. Jorgenson, 2001. "Information Technology and the U.S. Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 1-32, March.
    8. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson, 2005. "Unbundling Institutions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(5), pages 949-995, October.
    9. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    10. Gerben Panne, 2004. "Agglomeration externalities: Marshall versus Jacobs," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 593-604, December.
    11. Oughton, Christine & Landabaso, Mikel & Morgan, Kevin, 2002. "The Regional Innovation Paradox: Innovation Policy and Industrial Policy," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 97-110, January.
    12. Rolf Sternberg & Sander Wennekers, 2005. "Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 193-203, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p781. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.