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Self-Employment and Unemployment in Spanish Regions in the Period 1979-2001

Author

Listed:
  • Antonio Golpe

    (University of Huelva, Spain)

  • Andre van Stel

    () (EIM Business and Policy Research, Zoetermeer, Netherlands; Cranfield University School of Management, UK; Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

Abstract

This paper investigates the relation between changes in self-employment and changes in unemployment at the regional level in Spain in the period 1979-2001. We estimate a vector autoregression model as proposed by Audretsch, Carree, van Stel and Thurik (2005) using a data base for Spanish regions. By estimating the model we are able to empirically distinguish between two directions of causality. On the one hand increases in self-employment may contribute to lower unemployment rates (the "entrepreneurial" effect). On the other hand, higher unemployment rates may push individuals into self-employment, thereby contributing to higher self-employment rates (the "refugee" effect). In our analysis of these two effects we distinguish between higher and lower income regions within Spain. We find empirical support for the "entrepreneurial" effect to exist, both in higher income and in lower income regions. As regards the "refugee" effect, the evidence is mixed. We find empirical support for this effect for higher income regions. Remarkably, we do not find evidence for a "refugee" effect in lower income regions of Spain, even though unemployment rates are on average higher in these regions. We argue that this may be partly related to a lack of incentives for unemployed individuals in these regions to find paid employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio Golpe & Andre van Stel, 2007. "Self-Employment and Unemployment in Spanish Regions in the Period 1979-2001," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-021, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  • Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2007-021
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. André Stel & Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2005. "The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 311-321, February.
    2. Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008. "Does self-employment reduce unemployment?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
    3. Samuel Bentolila & Juan F. Jimeno, "undated". "Spanish Unemployment: The End of the Wild Ride?," Working Papers 2003-10, FEDEA.
    4. Enrique López-Bazo & Tomás del Barrio & Manuel Artis, 2002. "The regional distribution of Spanish unemployment: A spatial analysis," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 81(3), pages 365-389.
    5. Joost van Acht & Joop Stam & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul, 2004. "Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-09, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    6. Bande, Roberto & Fernández, Melchor & Montuenga, Víctor, 2008. "Regional unemployment in Spain: Disparities, business cycle and wage setting," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 885-914, October.
    7. Geroski, Paul A, 1989. "Entry, Innovation and Productivity Growth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(4), pages 572-578, November.
    8. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2004. "The Effects of New Business Formation on Regional Development over Time," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-36, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    9. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2004. "Effects of New Business Formation on Regional Development over Time," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 961-975.
    10. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    11. Namkee Ahn & Juan Ramón García & Juan F. Jimeno, "undated". "Well-being Consequences of Unemployment in Europe," Working Papers 2004-11, FEDEA.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Chrysanthi Balomenou & Konstantinos kolovos, 2013. "Universities' funding in the the current global financial crisis: Threat or opportunity for the implementation of Triple Helix Theory?," ERSA conference papers ersa13p839, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Chrysanthi Balomenou & Aniko Kalman & Konstantinos Kolovos, 2014. "Comparative analysis of the implementation of Triple Helix Theory in Greece and Hungary and lessons learned from both cases´," ERSA conference papers ersa14p954, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Porras, María Sylvina & Martín-Román, Ángel L., 2017. "Self-employment and Okun’s Law relationship: the Spanish case," GLO Discussion Paper Series 157, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    4. László Szerb & Raquel Ortega-Argilés & Zoltán à cs & Alicia Coduras, 2012. "The examination of the regional level entrepreneurship: The Spanish case," ERSA conference papers ersa12p781, European Regional Science Association.
    5. Halicioglu, Ferda & Yolac, Sema, 2015. "Testing the impact of unemployment on self-employment: empirical evidence from OECD countries," MPRA Paper 65026, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; self-employment; unemployment; economic growth; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe

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