IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

A Stepwise Efficiency Improvement DEA Model for Airport Operations with Fixed Production Factors


  • Soushi Suzuki


  • Peter Nijkamp



In the spirit of the deregulation movement, Japan is also faced with an "Asia Open Sky" agreement which favours aviation liberalization in international services. This means an end to Japan's aviation policy of isolation. In association with this policy change, also environmental concerns grew increasingly severe for small and local regional airports. Consequently, there is a need for an objective analysis of the efficiency of airport operations in Japan. A standard tool to judge the efficiency of such activities is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In the past years, much progress has been made to extend this approach in various directions. Interesting examples are the Distance Friction Minimization (DFM) model and the Context-Dependent (CD) model. The DFM model is based on a generalized distance friction function and serves to improve the performance of a Decision Making Unit (DMU) by identifying the most appropriate movement towards the efficiency frontier surface. Standard DEA models use a uniform input reduction in the improvement projections, but the DFM approach aims to enhance efficiency strategies by introducing a weighted projection function. This approach may address both input reduction and output increase as a strategy of a DMU. Likewise, the CD model yields efficient frontiers at different levels, while it is based on a level-by-level improvement projection. The Stepwise DFM model is an integration of the DFM and the CD model in order to design a stepwise efficiency-improving projection model for a conventional DEA. In general, a DEA model and neither the mix of the DFM-CD model doesn't take into account a fixed factor. Such a non-controllable of fixed factor may refer to a production factor that cannot be flexibly adjusted in the short run. In our study the newly integrated Stepwise DFM-CD model will be extended with a fixed factor model in order to adapt the DEA model to realistic circumstances in an efficiency improvement projection. The above-mentioned stepwise fixed factor projection model is illustrated on the basis of an application to the efficiency analysis of airport operations in Japan in light of the above mentioned contextual changes in aviation policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Soushi Suzuki & Peter Nijkamp, 2011. "A Stepwise Efficiency Improvement DEA Model for Airport Operations with Fixed Production Factors," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1065, European Regional Science Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p1065

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Suzuki, Soushi & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet & Pels, Eric, 2010. "A distance friction minimization approach in data envelopment analysis: A comparative study on airport efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(2), pages 1104-1115, December.
    2. Soushi Suzuki & Peter Nijkamp, 2011. "A stepwise-projection data envelopment analysis for public transport operations in Japan," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 139-156, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p1065. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.