Is export diversification the best way to achieve export growth and stability? A look at three African countries
Malawi, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe depend heavily on export earnings from a narrow base of agricultural commodities (coffee, cotton, sugar, tea, and tobacco). This dependence increased between 1961 - 1973 and 1974 - 1987, when international prices for those commodities were declining and unstable. Policymakers concerned with the instability and downward trend in export earnings for the three countries, tend to equate these trends with the countries'narrow export commodity base. They often propose export diversification as an expedient remedy. But the authors found that horizontal diversification would have produced lower export earnings and more instability. Policymakers introducing horizontal diversification must first consider price forecasts, comparative advantage, the economy's changing structure, and the costs of adjustment. Reactions to historical price movements can produce unexpected, undesirable results. A shift during this period from favorable to unfavorable price trends, and shifts in the covariances of deviations from price trends, complicate the design of export diversification policies, especially policies aimed at stabilizing export earnings. Generally, the most effective way to achieve growth and stability in export earnings is to increase and stabilize agricultural production and the volume of exports. The authors analysis shows that different export diversification policies can help fulfill different policy goals.
|Date of creation:||31 Jul 1991|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Takamasa Akiyama & Larson, Donald F., 1989. "Recent trends and prospects for agricultural commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 348, The World Bank.
- Svedberg, Peter, 1991. "The Export Performance of Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(3), pages 549-566, April.
- Glezakos, Constantine, 1973. "Export Instability and Economic Growth: A Statistical Verification," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 670-678, Part I Ju.
- Knudsen, Odin & Nash, John, 1990. "Domestic Price Stabilization Schemes in Developing Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 539-558, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:729. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.