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Capital structures in developing countries : evidence from ten countries

Author

Listed:
  • Demirguc - Kunt, Asli
  • Maksimovic, Vojislav
  • DEC

Abstract

The authors investigate capital structures in a sample of the largest publicly traded firms in ten developing countries - Brazil, India, Jordan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, and Zimbabwe - for 1980 - 91. The firms in the sample are smaller than comparable U.S. firms, and the financial systems and regulations in these countries differ significantly from those in the United States. Not every country has well-functioning liquid financial markets in which investors can diversify risks. Nor do all countries have efficient legal systems in which a broad range of property rights can be enforced. Still, variables that predict capital structures in the United States also predict choices of capital structures in the countries sampled. Variables suggested by agency theory explain more of the variation than variables suggested by tax-based theories. For both short-term and long-term equations in most countries, the asset structure, liquidity, and industry effects have more explanatory power than firm size, growth opportunities, and tax effects. In several countries, total indebtedness is negatively related to net fixed assets, suggesting that markets for long-term debt do not function effectively.

Suggested Citation

  • Demirguc - Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav & DEC, 1994. "Capital structures in developing countries : evidence from ten countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1320, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1320
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. " Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-1366, September.
    2. Hart, O. & Moore, J., 1989. "Default And Renegotiation: A Dynamic Model Of Debt," Working papers 520, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    3. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    4. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
    5. Maksimovic, Vojislav & Titman, Sheridan, 1991. "Financial Policy and Reputation for Product Quality," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(1), pages 175-200.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Alba, Pedro & Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon, 1998. "Thailand's corporate financing and governance structures," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2003, The World Bank.
    2. Schmukler,Sergio L. & Versperoni,Esteban, 2000. "Globalization and firms'financing choices - evidence from emerging economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2323, The World Bank.
    3. Hyesung Kim & Almas Heshmati & Dany Aoun, 2006. "Dynamics of Capital Structure: The Case of Korean Listed Manufacturing Companies ," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 20(3), pages 275-302, September.
    4. Julio de Brun & Eduardo Barbieri & Nestor Gandelman, 2002. "Investment Equations and Financial Restrictions at Firm Level: The Case of Uruguay," Research Department Publications 3155, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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