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A Benchmark Approach to Investing and Pricing

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Abstract

This paper introduces a general market modeling framework, the benchmark approach, which assumes the existence of the numeraire portfolio. This is the strictly positive portfolio that when used as benchmark makes all benchmarked nonnegative portfolios supermartingales, that is intuitively speaking downward trending or trendless. It can be shown to equal the Kelly portfolio which maximizes expected logarithmic utility. In several ways the Kelly or numeraire portfolio is the "best" performing portfolio and can not be out performed systematically by any other nonnegative portfolio. Its use in pricing as numeraire leads directly to the real world pricing formula, which employs the real world probability when calculating conditional expectations. In a large regular financial market, the Kelly portfolio is shown to be approximated by well diversified portfolios.

Suggested Citation

  • Eckhard Platen, 2009. "A Benchmark Approach to Investing and Pricing," Research Paper Series 253, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  • Handle: RePEc:uts:rpaper:253
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Norbert Hofmann & Eckhard Platen & Martin Schweizer, 1992. "Option Pricing Under Incompleteness and Stochastic Volatility," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(3), pages 153-187.
    2. Eckhard Platen, 2004. "A Benchmark Framework for Risk Management," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Stochastic Processes And Applications To Mathematical Finance, chapter 15, pages 305-335 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Robert C. Merton, 2005. "Theory of rational option pricing," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 8, pages 229-288 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Eckhard Platen, 2006. "A Benchmark Approach To Finance," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 131-151.
    5. Constantinides, George M, 1992. "A Theory of the Nominal Term Structure of Interest Rates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 531-552.
    6. Norbert Hofmann & Eckhard Platen & Martin Schweizer, 1992. "Option Pricing Under Incompleteness and Stochastic Volatility," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(3), pages 153-187.
    7. Eckhard Platen, 2001. "Arbitrage in Continuous Complete Markets," Research Paper Series 72, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    8. Hakansson, Nils H., 1971. "Capital Growth and the Mean-Variance Approach to Portfolio Selection," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(01), pages 517-557, January.
    9. Harry M. Markowitz, 2011. "Investment for the Long Run: New Evidence for an Old Rule," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: THE KELLY CAPITAL GROWTH INVESTMENT CRITERION THEORY and PRACTICE, chapter 35, pages 495-508 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    10. Eckhard Platen, 2004. "Diversified Portfolios with Jumps in a Benchmark Framework," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer;Japanese Association of Financial Economics and Engineering, vol. 11(1), pages 1-22, March.
    11. Dirk Becherer, 2001. "The numeraire portfolio for unbounded semimartingales," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 327-341.
    12. Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
    13. Ioannis Karatzas & Constantinos Kardaras, 2007. "The numéraire portfolio in semimartingale financial models," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 447-493, October.
    14. Constantinos Kardaras & Eckhard Platen, 2008. "Minimizing the Expected Market Time to Reach a Certain Wealth Level," Research Paper Series 230, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    15. Robert Fernholz & Ioannis Karatzas, 2005. "Relative arbitrage in volatility-stabilized markets," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 149-177, November.
    16. Merton, Robert C, 1973. "An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(5), pages 867-887, September.
    17. I. Bajeux-Besnainou & R. Portait, 1997. "The numeraire portfolio: a new perspective on financial theory," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 291-309.
    18. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
    19. Eckhard Platen, 2009. "Real World Pricing of Long Term Contracts," Research Paper Series 262, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    20. Constantinos Kardaras & Eckhard Platen, 2008. "On Financial Markets where only Buy-And-Hold Trading is Possible," Research Paper Series 213, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
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    Cited by:

    1. Claudio Fontana & Wolfgang J. Runggaldier, 2012. "Diffusion-based models for financial markets without martingale measures," Papers 1209.4449, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2013.
    2. Ke Du & Eckhard Platen & Renata Rendek, 2012. "Modeling of Oil Prices," Research Paper Series 321, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    3. Gabriel Frahm, 2016. "Pricing And Valuation Under The Real-World Measure," International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance (IJTAF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 19(01), pages 1-39, February.
    4. Claudio Fontana, 2013. "Weak and strong no-arbitrage conditions for continuous financial markets," Papers 1302.7192, arXiv.org, revised May 2014.
    5. Gabriel Frahm, 2013. "Pricing and Valuation under the Real-World Measure," Papers 1304.3824, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2016.
    6. Eckhard Platen & Renata Rendek, 2012. "The Affine Nature of Aggregate Wealth Dynamics," Research Paper Series 322, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Kelly portfolio; real world pricing; numeraire portfolio; strong arbitrage; diversification;

    JEL classification:

    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

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