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A Benchmark Approach to Investing and Pricing

This paper introduces a general market modeling framework, the benchmark approach, which assumes the existence of the numeraire portfolio. This is the strictly positive portfolio that when used as benchmark makes all benchmarked nonnegative portfolios supermartingales, that is intuitively speaking downward trending or trendless. It can be shown to equal the Kelly portfolio which maximizes expected logarithmic utility. In several ways the Kelly or numeraire portfolio is the "best" performing portfolio and can not be out performed systematically by any other nonnegative portfolio. Its use in pricing as numeraire leads directly to the real world pricing formula, which employs the real world probability when calculating conditional expectations. In a large regular financial market, the Kelly portfolio is shown to be approximated by well diversified portfolios.

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Paper provided by Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney in its series Research Paper Series with number 253.

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Length: 20
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uts:rpaper:253
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  1. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
  2. N. Hofmann & E. Platen & M. Schweizer, 1992. "Option Pricing under Incompleteness and Stochastic Volatility," Discussion Paper Serie B 209, University of Bonn, Germany.
  3. Constantinos Kardaras & Eckhard Platen, 2009. "Minimizing the expected market time to reach a certain wealth level," Papers 0904.1903,
  4. Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
  5. Constantinides, George M, 1992. "A Theory of the Nominal Term Structure of Interest Rates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(4), pages 531-52.
  6. Eckhard Platen, 2009. "Real World Pricing of Long Term Contracts," Research Paper Series 262, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  7. Robert Fernholz & Ioannis Karatzas, 2005. "Relative arbitrage in volatility-stabilized markets," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 149-177, November.
  8. I. Bajeux-Besnainou & R. Portait, 1997. "The numeraire portfolio: a new perspective on financial theory," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 291-309.
  9. Eckhard Platen, 2004. "Diversified Portfolios with Jumps in a Benchmark Framework," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 1-22, March.
  10. Constantinos Kardaras & Eckhard Platen, 2008. "On Financial Markets where only Buy-And-Hold Trading is Possible," Research Paper Series 213, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  11. Merton, Robert C, 1973. "An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(5), pages 867-87, September.
  12. Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
  13. Dirk Becherer, 2001. "The numeraire portfolio for unbounded semimartingales," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 327-341.
  14. Eckhard Platen, 2004. "A Benchmark Approach to Finance," Research Paper Series 138, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  15. Markowitz, Harry M, 1976. "Investment for the Long Run: New Evidence for an Old Rule," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(5), pages 1273-86, December.
  16. Hakansson, Nils H., 1971. "Capital Growth and the Mean-Variance Approach to Portfolio Selection," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(01), pages 517-557, January.
  17. Eckhard Platen, 2003. "A Benchmark Framework for Risk Management," Research Paper Series 113, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  18. Eckhard Platen, 2001. "Arbitrage in Continuous Complete Markets," Research Paper Series 72, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  19. Ioannis Karatzas & Constantinos Kardaras, 2007. "The numéraire portfolio in semimartingale financial models," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 447-493, October.
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