How Firms Innovate: R&D, Non-R&D, and Technology Adoption
Non-R&D innovation is a common economic phenomenon, though R&D has been the central focus of policy making and scholarly research in the field of innovation. An analysis of the third European Community Innovation Survey (CIS-3) results for 15 countries finds that almost half of innovative European firms did not perform R&D in-house. Firms with weak in-house innovative capabilities and which source information from suppliers and competitors tend to innovate through non-R&D activities. In contrast, firms that engage in product innovation, find clients, universities and research institutions an important information source for innovation, apply for patents, or use other appropriation methods are more likely to perform R&D. However, non-R&D performers do not form a consistent block, with several notable differences between firms that use three different methods of innovating without performing R&D. Many of these determinants also influence the share of total innovation expenditures that are spent on non-R&D innovation activities. Furthermore, an analysis of the determinants of the share of each firm's total innovation expenditures for non-R&D activities shows that the factors that influence how innovation expenditures are distributed is generally consistent across sectors and European countries.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (31) (0)43 3883875
Fax: (31) (0)43 3216518
Web page: http://www.merit.unu.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Christian Rammer & Dirk Czarnitzki & Alfred Spielkamp, 2009.
"Innovation success of non-R&D-performers: substituting technology by management in SMEs,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 35-58, June.
- Spielkamp, Alfred & Czarnitzki, Dirk & Rammer, Christian, 2008. "Innovation Success of Non-R&D-Performers: Substituting Technology by Management in SMEs," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-092, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Arundel, Anthony & Kabla, Isabelle, 1998. "What percentage of innovations are patented? empirical estimates for European firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 127-141, June.
- Petri Rouvinen, 2002. "Characteristics of product and process innovators: some evidence from the Finnish innovation survey," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(9), pages 575-580.
- Jacques Mairesse & Pierre Mohnen, 2005.
"The Importance of R&D for Innovation: A Reassessment Using French Survey Data,"
The Journal of Technology Transfer,
Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 183-197, 01.
- Jacques Mairesse & Pierre Mohnen, 2004. "The Importance of R&D for Innovation: A Reassessment Using French Survey Data," NBER Working Papers 10897, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mairesse,Jacques & Mohnen,Pierre, 2004. "The Importance of R&D for Innovation: A Reassessment Using French Survey Data," Research Memorandum 022, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Jacques Mairesse & Pierre Mohnen, 2004. "The Importance of R&D for Innovation : A Reassessment Using French Survey Data," Working Papers 2004-25, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Herrera, Liliana & Muñoz-Doyague, Maria Felisa & Nieto, Mariano, 2010. "Mobility of public researchers, scientific knowledge transfer, and the firm's innovation process," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(5), pages 510-518, May.
- Rinaldo Evangelista & Simona Iammarino & Valeria Mastrostefano & Alberto Silvani, 2002. "Looking for Regional Systems of Innovation: Evidence from the Italian Innovation Survey," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 173-186.
- Tomiura, Eiichi, 2007. "Effects of R&D and networking on the export decision of Japanese firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 758-767, June.
- Grimpe, Christoph & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Search patterns and absorptive capacity: Low- and high-technology sectors in European countries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 495-506, April.
- Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley, 2008.
"R&D and Exporting: A Comparison of British and Irish Firms,"
Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv),
Springer, vol. 144(4), pages 750-773, December.
- Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley, . "R&D and exporting: A comparison of British and Irish firms," Discussion Papers 07/18, University of Nottingham, GEP.
- Santamara, Llus & Nieto, Mara Jess & Barge-Gil, Andrs, 2009. "Beyond formal R&D: Taking advantage of other sources of innovation in low- and medium-technology industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 507-517, April.
- Vega-Jurado, Jaider & Gutiérrez-Gracia, Antonio & Fernández-de-Lucio, Ignacio & Manjarrés-Henriquez, Liney, 2008. "The effect of external and internal factors on firms' product innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 616-632, May.
- Toke Reichstein & Ammon Salter, 2006. "Investigating the sources of process innovation among UK manufacturing firms," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(4), pages 653-682, August.
- Arundel, Anthony, 2001. "The relative effectiveness of patents and secrecy for appropriation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 611-624, April.
- Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
- Richard Harris & Qian Cher Li, 2009. "Exporting, R&D, and absorptive capacity in UK establishments," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(1), pages 74-103, January.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Veugelers, Reinhilde & Cassiman, Bruno, 1999. "Make and buy in innovation strategies: evidence from Belgian manufacturing firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 63-80, January.
- Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
- Luo, Xiaowei Rose & Koput, Kenneth W. & Powell, Walter W., 2009. "Intellectual capital or signal? The effects of scientists on alliance formation in knowledge-intensive industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 1313-1325, October.
- Leiponen, Aija & Byma, Justin, 2009. "If you cannot block, you better run: Small firms, cooperative innovation, and appropriation strategies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1478-1488, November.
- Lee, Chang-Yang & Sung, Taeyoon, 2005. "Schumpeter's legacy: A new perspective on the relationship between firm size and R&D," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 914-931, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2010027. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.