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Ecological Distribution, Agricultural Trade Liberalization, and In Situ Genetic Diversity

  • James Boyce
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    Genetic diversity in crop plants is crucial for long-term world food security. This diversity is sustained in the field primarily by poor farmers in developing countries, who receive no compensation for providing this external benefit to humankind. When agricultural imports displace local production in centers of genetic diversity, this threatens both rural livelihoods and the continued provision of this external benefit. The North American Free Trade Agreement’s impact on Mexican maize farming illustrates the problem. The prospects for remedial policies are shaped by the distribution of the costs and benefits of action and inaction.

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    File URL: http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/published_study/PS14.pdf
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    Paper provided by Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst in its series Published Studies with number ps14.

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    Date of creation: 1996
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    Handle: RePEc:uma:perips:ps14
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    1. Ingco, Merlinda D., 1995. "Agricultural trade liberalization in the Uruguay Round : one step forward, one step back?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1500, The World Bank.
    2. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-74, September.
    3. James Boyce, 1994. "Inequality as a Cause of Environmental Degradation," Published Studies ps1, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    4. Bellon, Mauricio R & Taylor, J Edward, 1993. ""Folk" Soil Taxonomy and the Partial Adoption of New Seed Varieties," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(4), pages 763-86, July.
    5. Brush, Stephen B., 1992. "Farmer's rights and genetic conservation in traditional farming systems," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(11), pages 1617-1630, November.
    6. J. Martinez-Alier, 1993. "Distributional Obstacles to International Environmental Policy: The Failures at Rio and Prospects after Rio," Environmental Values, White Horse Press, vol. 2(2), pages 97-114, May.
    7. Baldwin, Robert E, 1989. "The Political Economy of Trade Policy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 119-35, Fall.
    8. Templet, Paul H., 1995. "Grazing the commons: an empirical analysis of externalities, subsidies and sustainability," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 141-159, February.
    9. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-87, August.
    10. Boyce, James K., 1994. "Inequality as a cause of environmental degradation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 169-178, December.
    11. de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Anda, Gustavo Gordillo, 1995. "NAFTA and Mexico's maize producers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(8), pages 1349-1362, August.
    12. Levy, Santiago & van Wijnbergen, Sweder, 1995. "Transition Problems in Economic Reform: Agriculture in the North American Free Trade Agreement," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 738-54, September.
    13. Levy, Santiago & Wijnbergen, Sweder van, 1994. "Labor markets, migration and welfare Agriculture in the North-American Free Trade Agreement," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 263-278, April.
    14. Garcia-Barrio, Raul & Garcia-Barrios, Luis, 1990. "Environmental and technological degradation in peasant agriculture: A consequence of development in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(11), pages 1569-1585, November.
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