IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Private Equity Firms


  • Mark Humphery-Jenner

    (University of New South Wales, Tilburg University)

  • Zacharias Sautner

    (University of Amsterdam, Duisenberg school of finance)

  • Jo-Ann Suchard

    (University of New South Wales)


We study the role of private equity firms in cross-border mergers and acquisitions. We find that private equity-owned firms are more likely to become targets in crossborderM&A transactions. This effect is particularly strong in transactions where the target or its shareholders actively reach out for an acquirer. On average, cross-borderdeals with private equity-involvement are not associated with higher announcement returns. However, announcement returns are higher if the acquirer is owned by a private equity firm and the target is from a country with poor corporate governance. We provide evidence indicating that the international networks and connections that result from prior cross-border deals can explain why private equity firms create value in such deals. Our findings suggest that private equity firms can help to reduce information asymmetries in certain cross-border M&A deals. We perform several tests to address possible endogeneity concerns.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark Humphery-Jenner & Zacharias Sautner & Jo-Ann Suchard, 2012. "Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Private Equity Firms," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-031/2/DSF32, Tinbergen Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:tin:wpaper:20120031

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. R. Gaston Gelos & Shang‐Jin Wei, 2005. "Transparency and International Portfolio Holdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2987-3020, December.
    2. Bok Baik & Jun-Koo Kang & Jin-Mo Kim & Joonho Lee, 2013. "The liability of foreignness in international equity investments: Evidence from the US stock market," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(4), pages 391-411, May.
    3. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
    4. Donald D. Bergh & Brian L. Connelly & David J. Ketchen Jr & Lu M. Shannon, 2014. "Signalling Theory and Equilibrium in Strategic Management Research: An Assessment and a Research Agenda," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(8), pages 1334-1360, December.
    5. Rikard Larsson & Sydney Finkelstein, 1999. "Integrating Strategic, Organizational, and Human Resource Perspectives on Mergers and Acquisitions: A Case Survey of Synergy Realization," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(1), pages 1-26, February.
    6. Miguel A. Ferreira & Massimo Massa & Pedro Matos, 2010. "Shareholders at the Gate? Institutional Investors and Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(2), pages 601-644, February.
    7. Robert M. Bushman & Abbie Smith, 2003. "Transparency, financial accounting information, and corporate governance," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 9(Apr), pages 65-87.
    8. Markus Taussig & Andrew Delios, 2015. "Unbundling the effects of institutions on firm resources: The contingent value of being local in emerging economy private equity," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(12), pages 1845-1865, December.
    9. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Firm size and the gains from acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 201-228, August.
    10. Kale, Jayant R. & Kini, Omesh & Ryan, Harley E., 2003. "Financial Advisors and Shareholder Wealth Gains in Corporate Takeovers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(3), pages 475-501, September.
    11. Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Acquirer Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1851-1889, August.
    12. Francesco Castellaneta & Oliver Gottschalg, 2016. "Does ownership matter in private equity? The sources of variance in buyouts' performance," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(2), pages 330-348, February.
    13. R Greg Bell & Igor Filatotchev & Abdul A Rasheed, 2012. "The liability of foreignness in capital markets: Sources and remedies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 43(2), pages 107-122, February.
    14. Zaheer, Srilata, 2002. "The liability of foreignness, redux: a commentary," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 351-358.
    15. repec:hrv:faseco:30728041 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P., 2005. "Global diversification and bidder gains: A comparison between cross-border and domestic acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 533-564, March.
    17. Aktas, Nihat & de Bodt, Eric & Roll, Richard, 2013. "Learning from repetitive acquisitions: Evidence from the time between deals," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 99-117.
    18. Yael V. Hochberg & Alexander Ljungqvist & Yang Lu, 2010. "Networking as a Barrier to Entry and the Competitive Supply of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(3), pages 829-859, June.
    19. Andrey Golubov & Dimitris Petmezas & Nickolaos G. Travlos, 2012. "When It Pays to Pay Your Investment Banker: New Evidence on the Role of Financial Advisors in M&As," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(1), pages 271-312, February.
    20. Jeffrey J Reuer & Roberto Ragozzino, 2014. "Signals and international alliance formation: The roles of affiliations and international activities," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 45(3), pages 321-337, April.
    21. Bat Batjargal & Mannie (Manhong) Liu, 2004. "Entrepreneurs’ Access to Private Equity in China: The Role of Social Capital," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 15(2), pages 159-172, April.
    22. Zahra Bhanji & Joanne E Oxley, 2013. "Overcoming the dual liability of foreignness and privateness in international corporate citizenship partnerships," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(4), pages 290-311, May.
    23. Jason Furman & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1998. "Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(2), pages 1-136.
    24. Jun‐Koo Kang & Jin‐Mo Kim, 2008. "The Geography of Block Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2817-2858, December.
    25. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Christofi, Michael & Vrontis, Demetris & Thrassou, Alkis & Shams, S.M. Riad, 2019. "Triggering technological innovation through cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A micro-foundational perspective," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 148-166.
    2. Sara L. McGaughey & Pascalis Raimondos & Lisbeth La Cour, 2018. "What is a Foreign Firm? Implications for Productivity Spillovers," CESifo Working Paper Series 7109, CESifo.

    More about this item


    Mergers and acquisitions; private equity; information asymmetries;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tin:wpaper:20120031. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Tinbergen Office +31 (0)10-4088900). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.