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Discrete versus Continuous State Switching Models for Portfolio Credit Risk

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  • André Lucas

    () (ECO/FIN, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

  • Pieter Klaassen

    () (ABN AMRO Bank NV, Amsterdam)

Abstract

Dynamic models for credit rating transitions are important ingredients for dynamic credit risk analyses. We compare the properties of two such models that have recently been put forward. The models mainly differ in their treatment of systematic risk, which can be modeled either using discrete states (e.g., expansion versus recession) or continous states. It turns out that the implied asset correlations for discrete state switching models are implausibly low compared to correlation estimates in the literature. Given these limited correlations, we conclude that care has to be taken when discrete state regime switching models are employed for dynamic credit risk management. As a side result of our analysis, we obtain indirect evidence that default correlations may change over the business cycle.

Suggested Citation

  • André Lucas & Pieter Klaassen, 2003. "Discrete versus Continuous State Switching Models for Portfolio Credit Risk," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-075/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 30 Sep 2003.
  • Handle: RePEc:tin:wpaper:20030075
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nickell, Pamela & Perraudin, William & Varotto, Simone, 2000. "Stability of rating transitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 203-227, January.
    2. Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas & Pieter Klaassen, 2002. "Pro-Cyclicality, Empirical Credit Cycles, and Capital Buffer Formation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-107/2, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Duffie, Darrell & Singleton, Kenneth J, 1999. "Modeling Term Structures of Defaultable Bonds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(4), pages 687-720.
    4. Robert A. Jarrow & Stuart M. Turnbull, 2008. "Pricing Derivatives on Financial Securities Subject to Credit Risk," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Financial Derivatives Pricing Selected Works of Robert Jarrow, chapter 17, pages 377-409 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Linda Allen & Anthony Saunders, 2003. "A survey of cyclical effects in credit risk measurement model," BIS Working Papers 126, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    7. Gordy, Michael B., 2003. "A risk-factor model foundation for ratings-based bank capital rules," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 199-232, July.
    8. Lucas, Andre & Klaassen, Pieter & Spreij, Peter & Straetmans, Stefan, 2001. "An analytic approach to credit risk of large corporate bond and loan portfolios," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 1635-1664, September.
    9. Bangia, Anil & Diebold, Francis X. & Kronimus, Andre & Schagen, Christian & Schuermann, Til, 2002. "Ratings migration and the business cycle, with application to credit portfolio stress testing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 445-474, March.
    10. Gordy, Michael B., 2000. "A comparative anatomy of credit risk models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 119-149, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Christophe J. Godlewski, 2007. "Are Ratings Consistent with Default Probabilities?: Empirical Evidence on Banks in Emerging Market Economies," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(4), pages 5-23, August.
    2. Petr JAKUBÍK, 2007. "Macroeconomic Environment and Credit Risk (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 57(1-2), pages 60-78, March.
    3. Petr Jakubík, 2007. "Credit Risk and the Finnish Economy," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 1(3), pages 254-285, November.
    4. Ferrer, Alex & Casals, José & Sotoca, Sonia, 2015. "Sample dependency during unconditional credit capital estimation," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 175-186.
    5. Christophe J. Godlewski, 2007. "Are Ratings Consistent with Default Probabilities?: Empirical Evidence on Banks in Emerging Market Economies," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 43(4), pages 5-23, August.
    6. Konrad Banachewicz & André Lucas, 2008. "Quantile forecasting for credit risk management using possibly misspecified hidden Markov models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(7), pages 566-586.
    7. Koopman, Siem Jan & Kräussl, Roman & Lucas, André & Monteiro, André B., 2009. "Credit cycles and macro fundamentals," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 42-54, January.
    8. Guler Aras & Lale Aslan, 2011. "Capital structure and credit risk management: evidence from Turkey," International Journal of Accounting and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(1), pages 1-20.
    9. Gabriel Illanes & Alejandro Pena & Andrés Sosa, 2014. "Un Modelo Macroeconómico del Riesgo de Crédito en Uruguay," Documentos de trabajo 2014002, Banco Central del Uruguay.
    10. Petr Jakubík, 2006. "Does Credit Risk Vary with Economic Cycles? The Case of Finland," Working Papers IES 2006/11, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Apr 2006.
    11. Kim, Mi Ae & Jang, Bong-Gyu & Lee, Ho-Seok, 2008. "A first-passage-time model under regime-switching market environment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2617-2627, December.
    12. Konrad Banachewicz & André Lucas & Aad van der Vaart, 2008. "Modelling Portfolio Defaults Using Hidden Markov Models with Covariates," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(1), pages 155-171, March.
    13. Alejandro Ferrer Pérez & José Casals Carro & Sonia Sotoca López, 2014. "A new approach to the unconditional measurement of default risk," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2014-11, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
    14. Marcucci, Juri & Quagliariello, Mario, 2009. "Asymmetric effects of the business cycle on bank credit risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1624-1635, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    credit risk; regime switching; latent variable models; factor models;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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