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Innovation systems and policy: A tale of three countries

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  • Jan Fagerberg

    (University of Oslo, Ålborg University and University of Lund)

Abstract

Nordic policy makers have long been aware of the fact that prosperity requires more than just, say, well-functioning labor markets and/or generous social and educational policies. It also requires that the capabilities of the labor force are put to productive use in a way that enhances the productivity of the nation and hence the returns for the stakeholders. Nordic policy makers have therefore for a long time experimented with various policy instruments supporting productivity growth. Over the years different labels have been attached to such policy experiments (science, technology, industry policy etc.), but more recently the term innovation policy has become more widely used, and this practice is also adopted here. The paper provides an account of how innovation policies have evolved in three Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway and Finland) and considers the possible lessons from what has been done. The discussion informed by the literature on national innovation systems (introduced in the second section of the paper).

Suggested Citation

  • Jan Fagerberg, 2016. "Innovation systems and policy: A tale of three countries," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20160226, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
  • Handle: RePEc:tik:inowpp:20160226
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    File URL: http://www.sv.uio.no/tik/InnoWP/tik_working_paper_20160226.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. G. M.P. Swann, 2009. "The Economics of Innovation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13211, June.
    2. Jan Fagerberg, 2003. "Schumpeter and the revival of evolutionary economics: an appraisal of the literature," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 125-159, April.
    3. Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States since 1870," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abra56-1, June.
    4. Fagerberg, Jan & Fosaas, Morten & Bell, Martin & Martin, Ben R., 2011. "Christopher Freeman: social science entrepreneur," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 897-916, September.
    5. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    6. Charles Edquist & Leif Hommen (ed.), 2008. "Small Country Innovation Systems," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3981, June.
    7. Ruud E. Smits & Stefan Kuhlmann & Phillip Shapira (ed.), 2010. "The Theory and Practice of Innovation Policy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 4181, June.
    8. Dietmar Braun, 2008. "Lessons on the political coordination of knowledge and innovation policies," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(4), pages 289-298, May.
    9. Bergek, Anna & Jacobsson, Staffan & Carlsson, Bo & Lindmark, Sven & Rickne, Annika, 2008. "Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 407-429, April.
    10. Fagerberg, Jan & Mowery, David & Verspagen, Bart (ed.), 2009. "Innovation, Path Dependency, and Policy: The Norwegian Case," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199551552.
    11. Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States since 1870," NBER Chapters, in: Resource and Output Trends in the United States since 1870, pages 1-23, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jan Fagerberg & Gernot Hutschenreiter, 2020. "Coping with Societal Challenges: Lessons for Innovation Policy Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 279-305, June.
    2. Fagerberg, Jan, 2018. "Mobilizing innovation for sustainability transitions: A comment on transformative innovation policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(9), pages 1568-1576.
    3. Fagerberg, Jan & Verspagen, Bart, 2020. "Technological revolutions, structural change & catching-up," MERIT Working Papers 2020-012, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    4. Jakob Edler & Jan Fagerberg, 2017. "Innovation policy: what, why, and how," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 2-23.

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