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Innovation Systems and Policy: A Tale of Three Countries

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  • Jan Fagerberg

Abstract

Nordic policy makers have long been aware of the fact that prosperity requires more than just, say, well-functioning labor markets and/or generous social and educational policies. It also requires that the capabilities of the labor force are put to productive use in a way that enhances the productivity of the nation and hence the returns for the stakeholders. Nordic policy makers have therefore for a long time experimented with various policy instruments supporting productivity growth. Over the years different labels have been attached to such policy experiments (science, technology, industry policy etc.), but more recently the term innovation policy has become more widely used, and this practice is also adopted here. The paper provides an account of how innovation policies have evolved in three Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway and Finland) and considers the possible lessons from what has been done. The discussion informed by the literature on national innovation systems introduced in the second section of the paper.

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  • Jan Fagerberg, 2016. "Innovation Systems and Policy: A Tale of Three Countries," Stato e mercato, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 13-40.
  • Handle: RePEc:mul:jl9ury:doi:10.1425/82941:y:2016:i:1:p:13-40
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    Cited by:

    1. Jan Fagerberg & Gernot Hutschenreiter, 2020. "Coping with Societal Challenges: Lessons for Innovation Policy Governance," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 279-305, June.
    2. Fagerberg, Jan, 2018. "Mobilizing innovation for sustainability transitions: A comment on transformative innovation policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(9), pages 1568-1576.
    3. Fagerberg, Jan & Verspagen, Bart, 2020. "Technological revolutions, structural change & catching-up," MERIT Working Papers 2020-012, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    4. Jakob Edler & Jan Fagerberg, 2017. "Innovation policy: what, why, and how," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 2-23.
    5. Jan Fagerberg & Håkon Endresen Normann, 2022. "Innovation policy, regulation and the transition to net zero," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20220531, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.

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