Public sector research and industrial innovation in Norway: a historical perspective
This paper analyses the historical role of public research organisations for industrial growth and innovation in Norway – and the changes in this role over time. Public research organisations include research institutes and higher education institutions, and we go back in time to the 19th century. Like many other countries, Norway has a large number research institutes involved in innovation, and these organisations have an equally long history as higher education institutions. Public sector research has co-evolved with the national industrial structure, and institutes and universities have played central roles in developing high technology sectors and activities as well as in modernisations of traditional industries.
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- Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
- Whitley, Richard, 2003. "Competition and pluralism in the public sciences: the impact of institutional frameworks on the organisation of academic science," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1015-1029, June.
- Lars Nerdrum & Magnus Gulbrandsen, 2007. "The technical-industrial research institutes in the Norwegian innovation system," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070614, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Ole Andreas Engen, 2007. "The development of the Norwegian Petroleum Innovation System: A historical overview," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070605, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Magnus Gulbrandsen & Lars Nerdrum, 2007. "University-industry relations in Norway," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070613, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Olav Wicken, 2007. "The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070601, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Ben R. Martin, 2003. "The Changing Social Contract for Science and the Evolution of the University," Chapters, in: Science and Innovation, chapter 1 Edward Elgar.
- Heidi Wiig Aslesen, 2007. "The Innovation System of Norwegian Aquacultured Salmonids," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070606, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
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