Borders that Divide: Education and Religion in Ghana and Togo since Colonial Times
When European powers partitioned Africa, individuals of otherwise homogeneous communities were divided and found themselves randomly assigned to one coloniser. This provides for a natural experiment: applying a border discontinuity analysis to Ghana and Togo, we test what impact coloniser’s policies really made. Using a new data set of men recruited to the Ghana colonial army 1908-1955, we find literacy and religious beliefs to diverge between British and French mandated part of Togoland as early as in the 1920s. We attribute this to the different policies towards missionary schools. The British administration pursued a ”grant-in-aid” policy of missionary schools, whereas the French restricted missionary activities. The divergence is only visible in the Southern part. In the North, as well as at the border between Ghana and Burkina Faso (former French Upper Volta), educational and evangelization efforts were weak on both sides and hence, did not produce any marked differences. Using contemporary survey data we find that border effects originated at colonial times still persist today.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Jubilee Building G08, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SL|
Phone: +44 (0) 1273 678889
Fax: +44 (0)1273 873715
Web page: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/economics
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2009.
"Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics,"
NBER Working Papers
14723, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Graziella Bertocchi & Fabio Canova, 1996.
"Did colonization matter for growth? An empirical exploration into the historical causes of Africa's underdevelopment,"
Economics Working Papers
202, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Bertocchi, Graziella & Canova, Fabio, 2002. "Did colonization matter for growth?: An empirical exploration into the historical causes of Africa's underdevelopment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1851-1871, December.
- Bertocchi, Graziella & Canova, Fabio, 1996. "Did Colonization Matter for Growth? An Empirical Exploration into the Historical Causes of Africa's Underdevelopment," CEPR Discussion Papers 1444, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ewout H.P. Frankema, 2012.
"The origins of formal education in sub-Saharan Africa: was British rule more benign?,"
European Review of Economic History,
Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 335-355, November.
- Ewout Frankema, 2011. "The Origins of Formal Education in sub-Saharan Africa - Was British Rule More Benign?," Working Papers 0005, Utrecht University, Centre for Global Economic History.
- Nathan Nunn, 2010.
"Religious Conversion in Colonial Africa,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 147-52, May.
- Denis Cogneau & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps & Gilles Spielvogel, 2010.
"Development at the border: a study of national integration in post-colonial West Africa,"
DT/2010/12, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Denis Cogneau & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps & Gilles Spielvogel, 2010. "Development at the border : a study of national integration in post-colonial West Africa," PSE - G-MOND WORKING PAPERS halshs-00966312, HAL.
- Jutta Bolt & Dirk Bezemer, 2009. "Understanding Long-Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 24-54.
- Stelios Michalopoulos & Elias Papaioannou, 2010.
"Divide and Rule or the Rule of the Divided? Evidence from Africa,"
Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University
0756, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Michalopoulos, Stelios & Papaioannou, Elias, 2010. "Divide and Rule or the Rule of the Divided? Evidence from Africa," CEPR Discussion Papers 8088, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Stelios Michalopoulos & Elias Papaioannou, 2011. "Divide and Rule or the Rule of the Divided? Evidence from Africa," Economics Working Papers 0099, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
- Stelios Michalopoulos & Elias Papaioannou, 2011. "Divide and Rule or the Rule of the Divided? Evidence from Africa," NBER Working Papers 17184, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nicola Gennaioli & Ilia Rainer, 2007. "The modern impact of precolonial centralization in Africa," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 185-234, September.
- Alexander Moradi, 2008. "Confronting colonial legacies-lessons from human development in Ghana and Kenya, 1880-2000," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(8), pages 1107-1121.
- Francisco Gallego & Robert Woodberry, 2009.
"Christian Missionaries and Education in Former African Colonies: How Competition Mattered,"
Working Papers ClioLab
2, EH Clio Lab. Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
- Francisco A. Gallego & Robert Woodberry, 2010. "Christian Missionaries and Education in Former African Colonies: How Competition Mattered," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 19(3), pages 294-329, June.
- Alexander Moradi, 2008.
"Towards an Objective Account of Nutrition and Health in Colonial Kenya: A Study of Stature in African Army Recruits and Civilians, 1880-1980,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
2008-04, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Moradi, Alexander, 2009. "Towards an Objective Account of Nutrition and Health in Colonial Kenya: A Study of Stature in African Army Recruits and Civilians, 1880–1980," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 69(03), pages 719-754, September.
- Denis Cogneau, 2003. "Colonisation, School and Development in Africa. An empirical analysis," Working Papers DT/2003/01, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Grier, Robin M, 1999. "Colonial Legacies and Economic Growth," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 98(3-4), pages 317-35, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sus:susewp:2911. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Russell Eke)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.