Why Has Inequality in Weekly Earnings Increased in Canada?
Inequality in weekly earnings increased in the eighties in Canada. The growth in inequality occurred in conjunction with three facts. First, real hourly wages of young workers dropped more than 10%. Second, the percentage of employees working 35-40 hours per week in their main job fell and the fraction of employees working 50 hours or more per week rose. Third, there was a growing tendency for highly paid workers to work long workweeks. We argue that any set of explanations of the increase in weekly earnings inequality must reconcile these three facts. Sectoral changes in the distribution of employment by industry and union status explain roughly 30% of the rise in inequality. The reduction in real minimum wages and the decline of average firm size explain very little of the growth in age-earnings differentials. Skill-biased technological change could have increased both the dispersion of hourly wages and the dispersion of weekly hours of work and thus, is consistent a priori with the movements observed. Yet other factors may have played an equally important - if not more important - role. The growth in competitive pressures, possible shifts in the bargaining power (between firms and labour) towards firms, the greater locational mobility of firms, the increase in Canada's openness to international trade, the rise in fixed costs of labour and possibly in training costs may be major factors behind the growth in weekly earnings inequality in Canada.
|Date of creation:||30 Jul 1995|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6|
Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Beach, C.M. & Slotsve, G.A., 1994. "Polarization of Earnings in the Canadian Labour Market: A Non-Microdata Approach," Working Papers 17, John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy.
- Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
- Freeman, Richard Barry, 1984.
"Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions,"
4631951, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Freeman, Richard B, 1984. "Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 1-26, January.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1983. "Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions," NBER Working Papers 1207, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
- Riddell, W.C., 1993.
"Unionization in Canada and the United States: A Tale of Two Countries,"
1993-1, Queen's at Kingston - Sch. of Indus. Relat. Papers in Industrial Relations.
- W. Craig Riddell, 1993. "Unionization in Canada and the United States: A Tale of Two Countries," NBER Chapters, in: Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, pages 109-148 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Doiron, Denise J & Barrett, Garry F, 1996. "Inequality in Male and Female Earnings: The Role of Hours and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(3), pages 410-20, August.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1991. "How Much Has De-Unionisation Contributed to the Rise in Male Earnings Inequality?," NBER Working Papers 3826, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kevin M. Murphy & Finis Welch, 1992. "The Structure of Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 285-326.
- Richard B. Freeman & Karen Needels, 1993.
"Skill Differentials in Canada in an Era of Rising Labor Market Inequality,"
in: Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, pages 45-68
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard B. Freeman & Karen Needels, 1991. "Skill Differentials in Canada in an Era of Rising Labor Market Inequality," NBER Working Papers 3827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:1995080e. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Brown)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.