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Pourquoi l'inegalite des gains hebdomadaires a-t-elle augmente au Canada?

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  • Morissette, Rene
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    L'inegalite de la remuneration hebdomadaire a connu une croissance durant les annees 80 au Canada, et cette croissance depend de trois faits concourants. En premier lieu, le salaire horaire reel des jeunes travailleurs a chute de plus de 10 %. Deuxiemement, le pourcentage d'employes qui travaillent de 35 a 40 heures par semaine a leur emploi principal a chute, tandis que la proportion d'employes qui travaillent 50 heures ou plus par semaine a augmente. Troisiemement, on enregistre une tendance a la hausse chez les travailleurs qui touchent un salaire eleve a faire de longues semaines de travail. Nous croyons que toute hypothese avancee pour expliquer l'accroissement enregistre au titre de l'inegalite des gains hebdomadaires doit concilier ces trois faits. Une part de 30 % environ de la croissance de l'inegalite est attribuable aux changements sectoriels survenus dans la distribution de l'emploi selon l'industrie et le statut syndical. La reduction qui frappe le salaire minimum reel et la taille moyenne de l'entreprise n'est pas vraiment responsable de l'accroissement enregistre au titre des differences entre l'age et le revenu. Le progres technologique axe sur la main-d'oeuvre qualifiee pourrait avoir augmente la dispersion des salaires horaires et des heures de travail hebdomadaires; de fait, cette hypothese est compatible, a priori, avec les mouvements observes. D'autres facteurs, cependant, peuvent avoir joue un role egalement -- sinon plus --- important. L'intensification de la concurrence, le transfert possible aux entreprises du pouvoir de negociation (entre les entreprises et la main-d'oeuvre), l'accroissement de la mobilite des entreprises, la plus grande accessibilite du Canada au commerce international, l'augmentation des frais fixes de main-d'oeuvre et, possiblement, des frais de formation sont autant de facteurs qui peuvent sous-tendre la croissance de l'inegalite de la remuneration hebdomadaire au Canada.

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    Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche with number 1995080f.

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    Date of creation: 30 Jul 1995
    Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3f:1995080f
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    1. Kevin M. Murphy & Finis Welch, 1992. "The Structure of Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 285-326.
    2. Freeman, Richard B, 1984. "Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 1-26, January.
    3. Richard B. Freeman & Karen Needels, 1993. "Skill Differentials in Canada in an Era of Rising Labor Market Inequality," NBER Chapters,in: Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, pages 45-68 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Richard B. Freeman, 1991. "How Much Has De-Unionisation Contributed to the Rise in Male Earnings Inequality?," NBER Working Papers 3826, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-293, March.
    6. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-442, June.
    7. Beach, C.M. & Slotsve, G.A., 1994. "Polarization of Earnings in the Canadian Labour Market: A Non-Microdata Approach," Working Papers 17, John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy.
    8. Doiron, Denise J & Barrett, Garry F, 1996. "Inequality in Male and Female Earnings: The Role of Hours and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(3), pages 410-420, August.
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