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Open Science: One Term, Five Schools of Thought


  • Benedikt Fecher
  • Sascha Friesike


Open Science is an umbrella term that encompasses a multitude of assumptions about the future of knowledge creation and dissemination. Based on a literature review, this paper aims at structuring the overall discourse by proposing five Open Science schools of thought: The infrastructure school (which is concerned with the technological architecture), the public school (which is concerned with the accessibility of knowledge creation), the measurement school (which is concerned with alternative impact measurement), the democratic school (which is concerned with access to knowledge) and the pragmatic school (which is concerned with collaborative research).

Suggested Citation

  • Benedikt Fecher & Sascha Friesike, 2013. "Open Science: One Term, Five Schools of Thought," Working Paper Series of the German Council for Social and Economic Data 218, German Council for Social and Economic Data (RatSWD).
  • Handle: RePEc:rsw:rswwps:rswwps218

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Haeussler, Carolin, 2011. "Information-sharing in academia and the industry: A comparative study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 105-122, February.
    2. Bozeman, Barry & Corley, Elizabeth, 2004. "Scientists' collaboration strategies: implications for scientific and technical human capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 599-616, May.
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    More about this item


    ratswd; ratswd working paper; data sharing; data management; germany; data availability; open access; research infrastructure; data; replication; data privacy; metadata; research data centre; infrastructure; psychdata; data management; psychology; science cooperation; open science; open access; assessment and review; science 2.0; open data; citizen science; schools of thought; altmetrics; science communication;

    JEL classification:

    • H42 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Publicly Provided Private Goods
    • H44 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • K11 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Property Law
    • L17 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Open Source Products and Markets
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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