Exit Options and Dividend Policy under Liquidity Constraints
We introduce a liquidity constraint to the standard model of a firm with stochastic cash flow and an irreversible exit decision. A firm with no cash holdings and negative cash flow is forced to exit regardless of its option value. This creates a precautionary motive for holding cash, which has a liquidity cost because the return on cash is below the discount rate of interest. We characterize the optimal exit and dividend policy and show how it can be solved numerically. We show that the firm almost surely exits voluntarily to preempt forced exit. Numerical results show that the optimal policy is very sensitive to a small liquidity cost. We also study the implications of the liquidity constraint on an industry with idiosyncratic productivity shocks and endogenous entry. Equilibrium inefficiency has three channels: 1) cross-section of firm productivity is distorted as some firms exit too early and others too late, 2) turnover rate is distorted, 3) precautionary cash holdings are socially inefficient. The effect of the liquidity constraint on average productivity is in principle ambiguous. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that when entry costs are low the liquidity constraint lowers average productivity, as old but currently unproductive firms that have succeeded in accumulating a lot of cash then continue at inefficiently low productivity levels.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Society for Economic Dynamics Marina Azzimonti Department of Economics Stonybrook University 10 Nicolls Road Stonybrook NY 11790 USA|
Web page: http://www.EconomicDynamics.org/society.htm
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Deaton, Angus, 1991.
"Saving and Liquidity Constraints,"
Econometric Society, vol. 59(5), pages 1221-1248, September.
- Deaton, A., 1989. "Saving And Liquidity Constraints," Papers 153, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Angus Deaton, 1989. "Saving and Liquidity Constraints," NBER Working Papers 3196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dixit, Avinash K, 1989. "Entry and Exit Decisions under Uncertainty," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 620-638, June.
- Dixit, A., 1988. "Entry And Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty," Papers 91, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
- Luigi Zingales, 1998. "Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(3), pages 905-938, 06.
- Luigi Zingales, "undated". "Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry," CRSP working papers 336, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 1778, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Luigi Zingales, 1997. "Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry," NBER Working Papers 6273, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dumas, Bernard, 1991. "Super contact and related optimality conditions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 675-685, October.
- Jianjun Miao, 2005. "Optimal Capital Structure and Industry Dynamics," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2621-2659, December.
- Jianjun Miao, 2003. "Optimal Capital Structure and Industry Dynamics," Industrial Organization 0310001, EconWPA.
- Jianjun Miao, 2011. "Optimal Capital Structure and Industry Dynamics," CEMA Working Papers 440, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
- Mello, Antonio S & Parsons, John E, 2000. "Hedging and Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(1), pages 127-153.
- Robert McDonald & Daniel Siegel, 1986. "The Value of Waiting to Invest," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 101(4), pages 707-727.
- Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-1150, September.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:red:sed008:798. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Zimmermann)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.