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Nonparametric Estimates Of The Components Of Productivity And Profitability Change In U.S. Agriculture



Profitability change can be decomposed into the product of a total factor productivity (TFP) index and an index of relative price change. O’Donnell (2008) shows that the TFP index can be further decomposed into an index of technical change and various indexes of efficiency change – these indexes measure changes in productivity resulting from movements in the production frontier, movements by firms towards the frontier, and movements by firms around the frontier to capture economies of scale and scope. The O’Donnell decomposition methodology can be applied in any multiple-input multiple-output setting, it makes no assumptions concerning the optimising behaviour of firms or the degree of competition in product markets, and it only involves components that can be unambiguously interpreted as measures of either technical change or efficiency change. This paper uses the methodology to decompose spatially - and temporally-transitive Lowe indexes of TFP change in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960-2004. To implement the methodology, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to estimate separate production frontiers for each of the ten farm production regions identified by the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). California and Florida are found to be the most profitable and productive states. In most states, the main drivers of TFP change over the 45-year study period appear to have been technical change and scale and mix efficiency change. For example, Texas is found to have experienced a 40% increase in productivity due to technical change and a 32% increase in productivity due to economies of scale and scope, resulting in an overall productivity increase of 1.40 ! 1.32 – 1 = 85%; in Tennessee, the combined effects of technical progress (122%), technical efficiency improvement (1%) and diseconomies of scale and scope (-24%) resulted in an net productivity increase of 2.22 ! 1.01 ! 0.76 – 1 = 70%.

Suggested Citation

  • C.J. O'Donnell, 2010. "Nonparametric Estimates Of The Components Of Productivity And Profitability Change In U.S. Agriculture," CEPA Working Papers Series WP022010, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
  • Handle: RePEc:qld:uqcepa:70

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christopher J. O'Donnell, 2010. "Measuring and decomposing agricultural productivity and profitability change ," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 54(4), pages 527-560, October.
    2. Catherine J. Morrison Paul & Richard Nehring & David Banker, 2004. "Productivity, Economies, and Efficiency in U.S. Agriculture: A Look at Contracts," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1308-1314.
    3. Capalbo, Susan Marie, 1988. "Measuring The Components Of Aggregate Productivity Growth In U.S. Agriculture," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 13(01), July.
    4. C.J. O'Donnell, 2008. "An aggregate quantity-price framework for measuring and Decomposing productivity and profitability change," CEPA Working Papers Series WP072008, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    5. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
    6. V. Eldon Ball & Charles Hallahan & Richard Nehring, 2004. "Convergence of Productivity: An Analysis of the Catch-up Hypothesis within a Panel of States," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1315-1321.
    7. Paul, Catherine J. Morrison & Nehring, Richard, 2005. "Product diversification, production systems, and economic performance in U.S. agricultural production," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 525-548, June.
    8. C.J. O'Donnell, 2010. "DPIN Version 1.0: A Program for Decomposing Productivity Index Numbers," CEPA Working Papers Series WP012010, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
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    Cited by:

    1. Laurenceson, James & O'Donnell, Christopher, 2014. "New estimates and a decomposition of provincial productivity change in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 86-97.
    2. C. O’Donnell & K. Nguyen, 2013. "An econometric approach to estimating support prices and measures of productivity change in public hospitals," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 323-335, December.
    3. Kerstens, Kristiaan & Van de Woestyne, Ignace, 2014. "Comparing Malmquist and Hicks–Moorsteen productivity indices: Exploring the impact of unbalanced vs. balanced panel data," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 233(3), pages 749-758.
    4. Ipatova, Irina, 2015. "The dynamics of total factor productivity and its components: Russian plastic production," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 21-40.
    5. C.J. O'Donnell & S. Fallah-Fini & K, Triantis, 2011. "Comparing Firm Performance Using Transitive Productivity Index Numbers in a Meta-frontier Framework," CEPA Working Papers Series WP082011, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    6. Diewert, W. Erwin & Fox, Kevin J., 2017. "Decomposing productivity indexes into explanatory factors," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 256(1), pages 275-291.
    7. Mullen, John & Keogh, Mick, 2013. "The Future Productivity and Competitiveness Challenge for Australian Agriculture," 2013 Conference (57th), February 5-8, 2013, Sydney, Australia 152170, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    8. Constant, Labintan Adeniyi & Shijun, Ding, 2012. "Benin Agriculture Productivity and profitability Measurement," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126748, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    9. Andrew Maredza and Sylvanus Ikhide, 2013. "The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Efficiency and Productivity of the Banking System in South Africa," Working Papers 328, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    10. Brennan, Shae & Haelermans, Carla & Ruggiero, John, 2014. "Nonparametric estimation of education productivity incorporating nondiscretionary inputs with an application to Dutch schools," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(3), pages 809-818.
    11. Arjomandi, Amir & Valadkhani, Abbas, 2010. "Banks’ Efficiency and Productivity Analysis Using the Hicks-Moorsteen Approach: A Case Study of Iran," Economics Working Papers wp10-11, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    12. See, Kok Fong & Li, Fei, 2015. "Total factor productivity analysis of the UK airport industry: A Hicks-Moorsteen index method," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1-10.
    13. C. O’Donnell, 2014. "Econometric estimation of distance functions and associated measures of productivity and efficiency change," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 187-200, April.
    14. Arjomandi, Amir & Valadkhani, Abbas & O’Brien, Martin, 2014. "Analysing banks’ intermediation and operational performance using the Hicks–Moorsteen TFP index: The case of Iran," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 111-125.
    15. Andreas Mayer & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2014. "An Aggregation Paradigm for Hicks-Moorsteen Productivity Indexes," CEPA Working Papers Series WP012014, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    16. Christopher O`Donnell, 2014. "An Economic Approach to Identifying the Drivers of Productivity Change in the Market Sectors of the Australian Economy," CEPA Working Papers Series WP022014, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    17. C.J. O'Donnell, 2011. "The Sources of Productivity Change in the Manufacturing Sectors of the U.S. Economy," CEPA Working Papers Series WP072011, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.

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