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Top incomes and income dynamics from a gender perspective: Evidence from Finland 1995–2012

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  • Terhi Ravaska

Abstract

In this paper I study Finnish top incomes from a gender perspective using the Finnish register-based panel data over the period of 1995-2012. I find that that the under-representation of women at the top has been quite persistent in the overall top but the proportion of women in the top 1 % has increased over 18 years. Women’s wage share at the top has increased while the self-employment income has decreased. The top income females more often have an ent-repreneurial background and are more often sharing a household with a high-income spouse. The gender-specific income distributions show that female incomes are less dispersed. In this study I also test whether top incomes can be assumed to be Pareto distributed. Whi-le the joint and men’s top income distributions can be approximated with Pareto distribution throughout the observation period, the Pareto assumption gets more support for women af-ter the year 2000. The female top income receivers have caught up with top earning men over time but I also show that females are more likely to move downwards from the top than men.

Suggested Citation

  • Terhi Ravaska, 2018. "Top incomes and income dynamics from a gender perspective: Evidence from Finland 1995–2012," Working Papers 321, Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos, Labour Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:pst:wpaper:321
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    income distribution; gender inequality; top incomes; income mobility;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General

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