IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pri/indrel/605.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bad Credit, No Problem? Credit and Labor Market Consequences of Bad Credit Reports

Author

Listed:
  • Will Dobbie

    (Princeton University and NBER)

  • Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham

    (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)

  • Neale Mahoney

    (University of Chicago and NBER)

  • Jae Song

    (Social Security Administration)

Abstract

Credit reports are used in nearly all consumer lending decisions and, increasingly, in hiring decisions in the labor market, but the impact of a bad credit report is largely unknown. We study the effects of credit reports on financial and labor market outcomes using a difference-in-differences research design that compares changes in outcomes over time for Chapter 13 filers, whose personal bankruptcy flags are removed from credit reports after 7 years, to changes for Chapter 7 filers, whose personal bankruptcy flags are removed from credit reports after 10 years. Using credit bureau data, we show that the removal of a Chapter 13 bankruptcy flag leads to a large increase in credit scores, and an economically significant increase in credit card balances and mortgage borrowing. We study labor market effects using administrative tax records linked to personal bankruptcy records. In sharp contrast to the credit market effects, we estimate a precise zero effect of flag removal on employment and earnings outcomes. We conclude that credit reports are important for credit market outcomes, where they are the primary source of information used to screen applicants, but are of limited consequence for labor market outcomes, where employers rely on a much broader set of screening mechanisms.

Suggested Citation

  • Will Dobbie & Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham & Neale Mahoney & Jae Song, 2016. "Bad Credit, No Problem? Credit and Labor Market Consequences of Bad Credit Reports," Working Papers 605, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  • Handle: RePEc:pri:indrel:605
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://dataspace.princeton.edu/bitstream/88435/dsp019593tx61n/3/605.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Will Dobbie & Jae Song, 2015. "Debt Relief and Debtor Outcomes: Measuring the Effects of Consumer Bankruptcy Protection," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(3), pages 1272-1311, March.
    2. Clifford, Robert & Shoag, Daniel, 2016. ""No More Credit Score": Emplyer Credit Check Bans and Signal Substitution," Working Paper Series 16-008, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    3. Kyle Herkenhoff, 2016. "The Impact of Consumer Credit Access on Employment, Earnings and Entrepreneurship," 2016 Meeting Papers 781, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. David B. Gross & Nicholas S. Souleles, 2002. "Do Liquidity Constraints and Interest Rates Matter for Consumer Behavior? Evidence from Credit Card Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 149-185.
    5. Marieke Bos & Emily Breza & Andres Liberman, 2018. "The Labor Market Effects of Credit Market Information," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(6), pages 2005-2037.
    6. Will Dobbie & Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham & Crystal S. Yang, 2017. "Consumer Bankruptcy and Financial Health," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 99(5), pages 853-869, December.
    7. Ashima, 2013. "Employee Satisfaction at Maruti Suzuki India Limited," Journal of Commerce and Trade, Society for Advanced Management Studies, vol. 8(12), pages 35-41, AprilOcto.
    8. Tal Gross & Matthew J. Notowidigdo & Jialan Wang, 2014. "Liquidity Constraints and Consumer Bankruptcy: Evidence from Tax Rebates," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(3), pages 431-443, July.
    9. Robert Clifford & Daniel Shoag, 2016. "“No more credit score”: employer credit check bans and signal substitution," Working Papers 16-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    10. Amy Finkelstein & Sarah Taubman & Bill Wright & Mira Bernstein & Jonathan Gruber & Joseph P. Newhouse & Heidi Allen & Katherine Baicker, 2012. "The Oregon Health Insurance Experiment: Evidence from the First Year," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(3), pages 1057-1106.
    11. Neale Mahoney, 2015. "Bankruptcy as Implicit Health Insurance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(2), pages 710-746, February.
    12. Michelle J. White, 2007. "Bankruptcy Reform and Credit Cards," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(4), pages 175-200, Fall.
    13. David K. Musto, 2004. "What Happens When Information Leaves a Market? Evidence from Postbankruptcy Consumers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 725-748, October.
    14. Sumit Agarwal & Souphala Chomsisengphet & Neale Mahoney & Johannes Stroebel, 2018. "Do Banks Pass through Credit Expansions to Consumers Who want to Borrow?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 133(1), pages 129-190.
    15. Tal Gross & Matthew J. Notowidigdo & Jialan Wang, 2016. "The Marginal Propensity to Consume Over the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 22518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Sergei Kovbasyuk & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2016. "Memory and Markets," EIEF Working Papers Series 1606, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Oct 2017.
    17. -, Anupama, 2013. "Deficits In Productive Employment In India," Journal of Regional Development and Planning, Rajarshi Majumder, vol. 2(2), pages 87-107.
    18. Leora Friedberg & Richard M. Hynes & Nathaniel Pattison, 2021. "Who Benefits from Bans on Employers’ Credit Checks?," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(4), pages 675-703.
    19. Robert B. Avery & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 2003. "An overview of consumer data and credit reporting," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 89(Feb), pages 47-73, February.
    20. Michelle J. White, 2007. "Bankruptcy Reform and Credit Cards," NBER Working Papers 13265, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. -, 2013. "Employers and higher education system," Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics, issue 1, pages 174-182.
    22. Donghoon Lee & Wilbert Van der Klaauw, 2010. "An introduction to the FRBNY Consumer Credit Panel," Staff Reports 479, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Kristle Romero Cortes & Andrew Glover & Murat Tasci, 2016. "The Unintended Consequences of Employer Credit Check Bans on Labor and Credit Markets," Working Papers 16-25R2, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    2. Kristle R. Cortes & Andrew Glover & Murat Tasci, 2022. "The Unintended Consequences of Employer Credit Check Bans for Labor Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 104(5), pages 997-1009, December.
    3. Kyle Herkenhoff, 2016. "The Impact of Consumer Credit Access on Employment, Earnings and Entrepreneurship," 2016 Meeting Papers 781, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Luojia Hu & Xing Huang & Andrei Simonov, 2020. "Credit Score Doctors," Working Paper Series WP 2020-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    5. Exler, Florian & Tertilt, Michèle, 2020. "Consumer Debt and Default: A Macro Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 12966, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Liberman, Andres & Paravisini, Daniel & Pathania, Vikram, 2021. "High-cost debt and perceived creditworthiness: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 719-736.
    7. Exler, Florian & Tertilt, Michèle, 2020. "Consumer Debt and Default: A Macroeconomic Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 14425, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Will Dobbie & Jae Song, 2016. "Debt Relief or Debt Restructuring? Evidence from an Experiment with Distressed Credit Card Borrowers," Working Papers 599, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    9. Marieke Bos & Emily Breza & Andres Liberman, 2018. "The Labor Market Effects of Credit Market Information," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(6), pages 2005-2037.
    10. Honigsberg, Colleen & Jacob, Matthew, 2021. "Deleting misconduct: The expungement of BrokerCheck records," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 139(3), pages 800-831.
    11. Cox, James C. & Kreisman, Daniel & Dynarski, Susan, 2020. "Designed to fail: Effects of the default option and information complexity on student loan repayment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    12. Aymeric Bellon & J. Anthony Cookson & Erik P. Gilje & Rawley Z. Heimer, 2020. "Personal Wealth and Self-Employment," NBER Working Papers 27452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Winnie van Dijk & Robert Collinson & John Eric Humphries & Nicholas Mader & Davin Reed & Daniel Tannenbaum, "undated". "Eviction and Poverty in American Cities," Working Papers 2022-24, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    14. Liberti, José & Sturgess, Jason & Sutherland, Andrew, 2022. "How voluntary information sharing systems form: Evidence from a U.S. commercial credit bureau," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 145(3), pages 827-849.
    15. Nicolás de Roux, 2021. "Exogenous shocks, credit reports and access to credit: Evidence from colombian coffee producers," Documentos CEDE 019769, Universidad de los Andes – Facultad de Economía – CEDE.
    16. Molnár, György & Berlinger, Edina & Dobránszky-Bartus, Katalin, 2021. "Lejárt tartozások fogságában [Overdue debt as a poverty trap]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(7), pages 709-735.
    17. Cahn, Christophe & Girotti, Mattia & Landier, Augustin, 2021. "Entrepreneurship and information on past failures: A natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 102-121.
    18. Arráiz, Irani & Bruhn, Miriam & Roth, Benjamin N. & Ruiz-Ortega, Claudia & Stucchi, Rodolfo, 2021. "Borrower leakage from costly screening: Evidence from SME lending in Peru," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    19. Asaf Bernstein, 2021. "Negative Home Equity and Household Labor Supply," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 76(6), pages 2963-2995, December.
    20. Sarah Miller & Cindy K. Soo, 2018. "Do Neighborhoods Affect Credit Market Decisions of Low-Income Borrowers? Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment," NBER Working Papers 25023, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Herkenhoff, Kyle & Phillips, Gordon M. & Cohen-Cole, Ethan, 2021. "The impact of consumer credit access on self-employment and entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 345-371.
    22. Ballance, Joshua & Clifford, Robert & Shoag, Daniel, 2020. "“No more credit score”: Employer credit check bans and signal substitution," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    23. Nicolás de Roux, 2020. "Weather Variability, Credit Scores and Access to Credit: Evidence from Colombian Coffee Farmers," Documentos CEDE 017800, Universidad de los Andes – Facultad de Economía – CEDE.
    24. Giorgia Barboni & Juan Camilo Cárdenas & Nicolás de Roux, 2022. "Behavioral Messages and Debt Repayment," Documentos CEDE 020257, Universidad de los Andes – Facultad de Economía – CEDE.
    25. Will Dobbie & Jae Song, 2017. "Targeted Debt Relief and the Origins of Financial Distress: Experimental Evidence from Distressed Credit Card Borrowers," NBER Working Papers 23545, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tal Gross & Matthew J. Notowidigdo & Jialan Wang, 2016. "The Marginal Propensity to Consume Over the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 22518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Eduardo Dávila, 2020. "Using Elasticities to Derive Optimal Bankruptcy Exemptions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(2), pages 870-913.
    3. Barry Scholnick & Hyungsuk Byun, 2016. "Do Slot Machines Cause Bankruptcy? A Regulatory Natural Experiment with Exogenous Changes to Slot Locations," ERSA conference papers ersa16p607, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Andres Liberman & Christopher Neilson & Luis Opazo & Seth Zimmerman, 2018. "The Equilibrium Effects of Information Deletion: Evidence from Consumer Credit Markets," NBER Working Papers 25097, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Vyacheslav Mikhed & Barry Scholnick, 2015. "Who is screened out of social insurance programs by entry barriers? Evidence from consumer bankruptcies," Working Papers 15-40, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    6. Marco Di Maggio & Ankit Kalda & Vincent Yao, 2019. "Second Chance: Life without Student Debt," NBER Working Papers 25810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Hyungsuk Byun & Barry Scholnick, 2017. "Spatial Commitment Devices and Addictive Goods: Evidence from the Removal of Slot Machines from Bars," Working Papers 17-34, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    8. Winnie van Dijk & Robert Collinson & John Eric Humphries & Nicholas Mader & Davin Reed & Daniel Tannenbaum, "undated". "Eviction and Poverty in American Cities," Working Papers 2022-24, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    9. Pattison, Nathaniel, 2020. "Consumption smoothing and debtor protections," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    10. Cox, James C. & Kreisman, Daniel & Dynarski, Susan, 2020. "Designed to fail: Effects of the default option and information complexity on student loan repayment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    11. John Eric Humphries & Nicholas Mader & Daniel Tannenbaum & Winnie van Dijk, 2019. "Does Eviction Cause Poverty? Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Cook County, IL," CESifo Working Paper Series 7800, CESifo.
    12. Albanesi, Stefania & Nosal, Jaromir, 2015. "Insolvency After the 2005 Bankruptcy Reform," CEPR Discussion Papers 10533, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Montebruno, Piero & Silva, Olmo & Szumilo, Nikodem, 2021. "Judge Dread: court severity, repossession risk and demand in mortgage and housing markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 110474, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    14. Igor Livshits, 2015. "Recent Developments In Consumer Credit And Default Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 594-613, September.
    15. Song Han & Benjamin J. Keys & Geng Li, 2011. "Credit supply to personal bankruptcy filers: evidence from credit card mailings," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    16. Argys, Laura M. & Friedson, Andrew I. & Pitts, M. Melinda & Tello-Trillo, D. Sebastian, 2020. "Losing public health insurance: TennCare reform and personal financial distress," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 187(C).
    17. Charles Sprenger & Joanna Stavins, 2008. "Credit card debt and payment use," Working Papers 08-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    18. Kleiner, Kristoph & Stoffman, Noah & Yonker, Scott E., 2021. "Friends with bankruptcy protection benefits," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 139(2), pages 578-605.
    19. Gan, Li & Hernandez, Manuel A. & Zhang, Shuoxun, 2021. "Insurance or deliberate use of the bankruptcy law for financial gain? Testing for heterogeneous filing behaviors in the United States," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    20. Jonathan D. Fisher, 2019. "Who Files for Personal Bankruptcy in the United States?," Journal of Consumer Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 2003-2026, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • K35 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Personal Bankruptcy Law
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pri:indrel:605. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/irprius.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Bobray Bordelon (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/irprius.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.