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“Flying Geese” Paradigm: Review, Analytical Tool and Application


  • Widodo, Tri


The “flying geese” (FG) pattern is one of the well-recognized models to be strongly considered in explaining economic development in the East Asian region. This paper scrutinizes the flying geese (FG) pattern in East Asia. Firstly, the evolution of FG concept starting from the original Akamatsu’s concept to the modern one is briefly discussed. Secondly, this paper develops an analytical tool namely “products mapping” which is constructed by combining two fundamental variables derived from the FG concept i.e. comparative advantage and trade balance. Thirdly, this paper applies the analytical tool in the case of Japan and Indonesia

Suggested Citation

  • Widodo, Tri, 2007. "“Flying Geese” Paradigm: Review, Analytical Tool and Application," MPRA Paper 78218, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:78218

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. C. H. Kwan, 2002. "The Rise of China and Asia's Flying-Geese Pattern of Economic Development: An Empirical Analysis Based on US Import Statistics," Discussion papers 02009, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Ballance, Robert H & Forstner, Helmut & Murray, Tracy, 1987. "Consistency Tests of Alternative Measures of Comparative Advantage," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 157-161, February.
    3. Dowlinga, Malcolm & Cheang, Chia Tien, 2000. "Shifting comparative advantage in Asia: new tests of the "flying geese" model," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 443-463.
    4. Kiichiro Fukasaku, 1992. "Economic Regionalisation and Intra-Industry Trade: Pacific-Asian Perspectives," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 53, OECD Publishing.
    5. Athukorala, Prema-chandra & Yamashita, Nobuaki, 2006. "Production fragmentation and trade integration: East Asia in a global context," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 233-256, December.
    6. Shigehisa Kasahara, 2004. "The Flying Geese Paradigm: A Critical Study Of Its Application To East Asian Regional Development," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 169, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    7. Kojima, Kiyoshi, 2000. "The "flying geese" model of Asian economic development: origin, theoretical extensions, and regional policy implications," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 375-401.
    8. Kosai, Yutaka & Van Tho, Tran, 1994. "Japan and industrialization in Asia -An essay in memory of Dr. Saburo Okita-," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 155-176.
    9. Thomas Vollrath, 1991. "A theoretical evaluation of alternative trade intensity measures of revealed comparative advantage," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 127(2), pages 265-280, June.
    10. Ozawa, Terutomo, 2001. "The "hidden" side of the "flying-geese" catch-up model: Japan's dirigiste institutional setup and a deepening financial morass," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 471-491.
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    More about this item


    Flying geese; Comparative advantage; Trade balance;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F17 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Forecasting and Simulation


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