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Парниковый Эффект И Рыночные Механизмы Киотского Протокола
[Greenhouse Effect and Mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol]


  • Bukvić, Rajko
  • Petrović, Dragan


Russian Abstract. Рассматривается проблема парниковых газов (ПГ), и сокращения их выбросов. Эмиссия ПГ считается одной из главных антропогенных причин роста концентрации углерода в атмосфере, и глобальных климатических перемен. Борьба с атмосферным загрязнением пока шла тремя путями: административное регулирование, экономические механизмы и формирование рыночных отношений. Во второй половине XX века для решения проблем были предложены многие схемы создания рыночного механизма, считающегося более подходящим во многих отношениях. Эти усилия увеличились в 1990х г., и наконец Киотский протокол поддержал гибкие механизмы: торговля квотами (квотирование и торговля), проекты совместного осуществления и механизмы чистого развития, разработаные в 2001 году. Но, несмотря на все эти усилия, в течение первого периода их применения (2008–2012) выбросы углерода в атмосферу возросли. Теперь мировой «углеродный» рынок идёт к развитию национальных, региональных и субрегиональных систем регулирования, но при сохранении международного сегмента (системы РКИК ООН). Конференция в 2012 году уточнила условия, в которых Стороны Конвенции будут выстраивать свою климатическую политику в будущем. Ведущая тенденция (акценты на региональные, субрегиональные и национальные системы регулирования) сохранилась, но сохранилась и «киотская» система, которая на новом этапе будет переходной на пути к новому ожидающемуся глобальному соглашению. English Abstract. This article considers the problem of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and its reduction. These missions are observed as one of the main anthropogenic causes of the increasing carbon concentration in the atmosphere, and the global climate change. The fight against atmosphere pollution goes in three directions: administrative regulations, economic mechanisms and market relations building. In the second half of the XX century many schemes for involving the market mechanism in solving these problems were proposed. These efforts increased in the 1990s and finally the Kyoto Protocol supported flexible mechanisms (trade of quotas – cap and trade, joint implementation projects and clean development mechanisms), as a solution to these problems, explained in 2001. In spite of all these efforts, during the first period of its implementation (2008– 2012) the emissions of carbon increased. Today, the world «carbon» market is moving to the development of national, regional and subregional regulation systems while keeping its international level (system UNFCCC). The Conference held in 2012 precised the conditions upon which the convention parties would define its climate policies in future. The leading tendency (transition to regional, subregional and national regulation systems) was maintained, as well as the «Kyoto» system, which in the new stage would play a transitional role on the road to a new expected global agreement.

Suggested Citation

  • Bukvić, Rajko & Petrović, Dragan, 2017. "Парниковый Эффект И Рыночные Механизмы Киотского Протокола
    [Greenhouse Effect and Mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol]
    ," MPRA Paper 76451, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2017.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:76451

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
    2. Сафонов Георгий Владимирович, 2000. "Перспективы Участия России В Международной Торговле Квотами На Выбросы В Атмосферу "Парниковых" Газов," Higher School of Economics Economic Journal Экономический журнал Высшей школы экономики, CyberLeninka;Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», vol. 4(3), pages 349-368.
    3. Yihsu Chen & Chung-Li Tseng, 2011. "Inducing Clean Technology in the Electricity Sector: Tradable Permits or Carbon Tax Policies?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 169-174.
    4. Cameron Hepburn, 2006. "Regulation by Prices, Quantities, or Both: A Review of Instrument Choice," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 226-247, Summer.
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    More about this item


    парниковый эффект; парниковые газы (ПГ); антропогенные влияния; Киотский протокол; рынки углерода; гибкие механизмы; greenhouse effect; greenhouse gases (GHG); anthropogenic impact; the Kyoto Protocol; carbon markets; flexible mechanisms;

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • K32 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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