End-Point versus Point of Sale Levying of Plant Breeding Royalties: An Economic Analysis using Optimal Control Theory
Intellectual property rights for commercial crops have become in- creasingly controversial as plant breeders have sought to protect their investment through licensing and royalties, and farmers, in particular ecologically-oriented farmers, have promoted seed-saving as a conser- vation measure. Plant breeders have argued that seed saving reduces sales to breeders and that the imposition of royalties is necessary to maintain sales and to compensate them for the intellectual property invested in commercial varieties. These issues are explored here. In this paper, an optimal control model of seed purchase decisions in the presence of seed saving is developed. The model is used to analyze the impact of both point of sale royalties and end-point royalties on seed puchase decisions. The two approaches to levying royalties are then compared and policy conclusions drawn.
|Date of creation:||15 Feb 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lindner, Robert K., 2004. "Economic Issues for Plant Breeding - Public Funding and Private Ownership," Australasian Agribusiness Review, University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, vol. 12.
- repec:ags:auagre:126563 is not listed on IDEAS
- W. Lesser, 1997. "Assessing the Implications of Intellectual Property Rights on Plant and Animal Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1584-1591.
- L. H. Woodhouse, 1933. "Changes in Farm Organization and Practices," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 15(1), pages 103-110.
- Kingwell, Ross S., 2001. "Charging for the use of plant varieties," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 45(2), June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:7178. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.