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Measuring Performance of Exchange Traded Funds

Author

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  • Hassine, Marlène
  • Roncalli, Thierry

Abstract

Fund selection is an important issue for investors. This topic has spawned abundant academic literature. Nonetheless, most of the time, these works concern only active management, whereas many investors, such as institutional investors, prefer to invest in index funds. The tools developed in the case of active management are also not suitable for evaluating the performance of these index funds. This explains why information ratios are usually used to compare the performance of passive funds. However, we show that this measure is not pertinent, especially when the tracking error volatility of the index fund is small. The objective of an exchange traded fund (ETF) is precisely to offer an investment vehicle that presents a very low tracking error compared to its benchmark. In this paper, we propose a performance measure based on the value-at-risk framework, which is perfectly adapted to passive management and ETFs. Depending on three parameters (performance difference, tracking error volatility and liquidity spread), this efficiency measure is easy to compute and may help investors in their fund selection process. We provide some examples, and show how liquidity is more of an issue for institutional investors than retail investors.

Suggested Citation

  • Hassine, Marlène & Roncalli, Thierry, 2013. "Measuring Performance of Exchange Traded Funds," MPRA Paper 44298, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44298
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/44298/1/MPRA_paper_44298.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    4. Laurent Barras & Olivier Scaillet & Russ Wermers, 2010. "False Discoveries in Mutual Fund Performance: Measuring Luck in Estimated Alphas," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 179-216, February.
    5. Edwin J. Elton & Martin J. Gruber & Jeffrey A. Busse, 2004. "Are Investors Rational? Choices among Index Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 261-288, February.
    6. Elton, Edwin J, et al, 1993. "Efficiency with Costly Information: A Reinterpretation of Evidence from Managed Portfolios," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(1), pages 1-22.
    7. J. Tobin, 1958. "Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 65-86.
    8. McNeil, Alexander J. & Frey, Rudiger, 2000. "Estimation of tail-related risk measures for heteroscedastic financial time series: an extreme value approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 271-300, November.
    9. Beasley, J. E. & Meade, N. & Chang, T. -J., 2003. "An evolutionary heuristic for the index tracking problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 148(3), pages 621-643, August.
    10. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    11. Bawa, Vijay S., 1975. "Optimal rules for ordering uncertain prospects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 95-121, March.
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    13. Estrada, Javier, 2007. "Mean-semivariance behavior: Downside risk and capital asset pricing," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 169-185.
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    Cited by:

    1. F. Riva & A. Calamia & L. Deville, 2013. "Liquidity in European equity ETFs: What really matters?," Post-Print hal-00846610, HAL.
    2. Christophe Hurlin & Gregoire Iseli & Christophe Pérignon & Stanley Yeung, 2014. "The Counterparty Risk Exposure of ETF Investors," Working Papers halshs-01023807, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Passive management; index fund; ETF; information ratio; tracking error; liquidity; spread; value-at-risk;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

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