IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Swimming Against the Tide


  • Holden, Paul
  • Holden, Sarah
  • Malcolm, Bale


An Analysis of Private Sector Development Issues in Small Economies This book examines the underlying factors that determine the environment for investment and growth in small economies, focussing on those in the Pacific.The private sector can flourish and create employment opportunities only if the environment in which it operates is conducive to business. Governments can often create an environment that increases the costs of doing business, reduces profits, and discourages dynamism and entrepreneurship. These issues include • fostering financial sector development for credit to be more readily available for business; • clarifying land rights and modifying them with respect to cultural preservation and the development of land markets; • reducing the role of the state in the economies of the region; • revamping the regulatory regimes for the business environment to be less constrained and monopolies more prudently regulated; • focusing on the assistance of small-scale rural enterprises. With concerted efforts, governments can ensure the resolution of these critical issues. However, doing so requires considerable time and great effort. Nevertheless, now is a perfect time to start the process. Strategies for change should focus on what causes the low rates of return on capital as well as the constraints to business startup and development.

Suggested Citation

  • Holden, Paul & Holden, Sarah & Malcolm, Bale, 2004. "Swimming Against the Tide," MPRA Paper 4207, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4207

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    3. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 92-96, May.
    4. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    5. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. International Monetary Fund, 2007. "Federated States of Micronesia; Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix," IMF Staff Country Reports 07/105, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Peter Biggs, 2007. "The financial sector in Papua New Guinea — A good case of reform," Economic Roundup, The Treasury, Australian Government, issue 3, pages 73-94, September.
    3. David William Harold Orsmond & Christopher Browne, 2006. "Pacific Island Countries; Possible Common Currency Arrangement," IMF Working Papers 06/234, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item


    private sector development; institutional economics;

    JEL classification:

    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4207. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.