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Impact of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity


  • Soliman, Ibrahim
  • Ewaida, Osama


Egypt has passed dramatic economic changes over the last two decades. Such program has different impacts on agricultural sector performance, including the mechanization, expansion and substitutability for human labor. Therefore the objectives of this study are to assess the impacts of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity. The analytical procedure is the estimation of crop production function for rice before and after the economic reform application in agricultural sector. The study used two field survey data in two sucessive periods conducted in "Sharkia Governorate". It was concluded that the optimum allocation of inputs for rice production implied to decrease the human labor use on farms, even though, under the export border price of rice. It means that such major crop in Egypt as a case study of the agricultural sector can not provide a feasible employment opportunity for human labor. To reach amaximum income from such agricultural activities a less labor intensity should be used. Positive analysis approach showed that the employment of human labor has decreased by almost one-fourth due to all technological changes and economic reform policies practiced over the last decade. The normative approach analysis (least cost combination of inputs), showed that the human labor employment should be decreased by about two-thirds, in order to maximize income. 4 In order to maintain agriculture growing at an economic competitive performance, all economic criteria, derived from the production function analysis in this study showed that the growth in production and maximization of income must rely upon a package of physical and biological technologies (new varieties, fertilizers and mechanization of farm operations). Rural development programs and economic development plans should create employment opportunities for the excess agriculture labor –beyond the economic density. Such opportunities should be either in agricultural related industries, non-agricultural small industries in villages or other economic activities in rural towns.

Suggested Citation

  • Soliman, Ibrahim & Ewaida, Osama, 1996. "Impact of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity," MPRA Paper 31165, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Dec 1996.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31165

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Soliman, Ibrahim, 1992. "Agricultural Mechanization And Economic Efficiency Of Agricultural Production In Egypt," Conference Papers 112669, Zagazig University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    2. Soliman, Ibrahim, 1985. "An Analysis of the Buffalo Milk Response under the Conventional Egyptian Farming system," Conference Papers 210365, Zagazig University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    3. Soliman, Ibrahim, 1983. "Livestock Working Power in Egyptian Agriculture," Working Papers 243408, University of California, Davis, Agricultural Development Systems: Egypt Project.
    4. Dunstan S. C. Spencer & Derek Byerlee, 1976. "Technical Change, Labor Use, and Small Farmer Development: Evidence from Sierra Leone," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 58(5), pages 874-880.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ibrahim Soliman & Jacinto F. Fabiosa & Mohamed Gaber Amer & Siham Kandil, 2010. "Impacts of the Economic Reform Program on the Performance of the Egyptian Agricultural Sector," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 10-wp509, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    2. Soliman, Ibrahim, 2003. "Diagnosis and Challenges of the Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt," MPRA Paper 66629, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Soliman, Ibrahim, 2015. "Diagnosis and Challenges of Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt," MPRA Paper 66443, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Agricultural Mechanization; Production Function Model; Technological changes; Economic Efficiency; The least cost Technological Package;

    JEL classification:

    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis


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