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Social Accounting Matrix for Pakistan, 2001-02: Methodology and Results

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  • Dorosh, Paul
  • Niazi, Muhammad Khan

Abstract

This paper describes the structure and construction of a social accounting matrix (SAM) for Pakistan for 2001-02. A SAM is an internally consistent extended set of national accounts that disaggregates value-added in each production activity into payments to various factors (e.g., land, labour, capital), and disaggregates household incomes and expenditures according to various household types. Because this Pakistan SAM is designed for analysis of the links between growth and rural poverty, agricultural activities, agricultural factors of production, and rural household accounts are more disaggregated than are those for urban activities and households. Rural household groups in the SAM are split according to three regions (Punjab, Sindh, and Other Pakistan) to capture the large differences in the structure of agricultural production and incomes across Pakistan. On average, household incomes in the SAM are 2.1 times greater than household expenditures in the HIES Survey, reflecting the apparent substantial under-reporting of expenditures (particularly on services)and informal sector incomes in the HIES and other household surveys. Agricultural factor incomes as calculated in the SAM account for only 23 percent of total factor incomes in Pakistan, but 60 percent of total factor incomes for agricultural households. 91 percent of agricultural incomes derive from land, water, own-farm labour, or livestock; earnings of hired labour and (nonlivestock)agricultural capital account for only 9 percent of agricultural incomes. Incomes of large- and medium-farm rural households, calculated using land area cultivated, data from the Agricultural Census, and other data, are significantly higher than indicated in household surveys.

Suggested Citation

  • Dorosh, Paul & Niazi, Muhammad Khan, 2006. "Social Accounting Matrix for Pakistan, 2001-02: Methodology and Results," MPRA Paper 2242, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:2242
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul Dorosh & Muhammad Khan Niazi & Hina Nazli, 2003. "Distributional Impacts of Agricultural Growth in Pakistan: A Multiplier Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 249-275.
    2. Debowicz, Dario & Dorosh, Paul A. & Robinson, Sherman & Haider, Syed Hamza, 2012. "Implications of productivity growth in Pakistan: An cconomy-wide analysis," PSSP working papers 2, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. DarĂ­o Debowicz & Paul Dorosh & Hamza Haider & Sherman Robinson, 2013. "A Disaggregated and Macro-consistent Social Accounting Matrix for Pakistan," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, December.
    4. Robinson, Sherman & Gueneau, Arthur, 2014. "Economic evaluation of the Diamer-Basha dam: Analysis with an integrated economic/water simulation model of Pakistan:," PSSP working papers 14, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Vaqar Ahmed & Cathal ODonoghue, 2010. "Case Study: Global economic crisis and poverty in Pakistan," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 3(1), pages 127-129.
    6. Essama-Nssah, 2004. "Building and running general equilibrium models in EViews," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3197, The World Bank.
    7. Delgado, Christopher L. & Hopkins, Jane & Kelly , Valerie & Hazell, P. B. R. & McKenna, Anna A. & Gruhn, Peter & Hojjati, Behjat & Sil, Jayashree & Courbois, Claude, 1998. "Agricultural growth linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa:," Research reports 107, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Arshad Ali Bhatti & Zakia Batool & Hasnain A. Naqvi, 2015. "Fiscal Policy and Its Role in Reducing Income Inequality- A CGE Analysis for Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 843-864.
    9. Ahmed, Vaqar & O' Donoghue, Cathal, 2008. "Welfare impact of external balance in pakistan: CGE-microsimulation analysis," MPRA Paper 9267, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. World Bank, 2012. "Pakistan - Strategic Environmental, Poverty and Social Assessment of Trade and Transport Sector Reforms," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12316, The World Bank.
    11. Debowicz, Dario & Dorosh, Paul A. & Robinson, Sherman & Haider, Syed Hamza, 2012. "A 2007-08 social accounting matrix for Pakistan:," PSSP working papers 1, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Cororaton, Caesar B. & Orden, David, 2008. "Pakistan's cotton and textile economy: Intersectoral linkages and effects on rural and urban poverty," Research reports 158, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    13. Rizwana Siddiqui & Abdul Razzaq Kemal & Rehana Siddiqui & Ali Kemal, 2008. "Tariff Reduction, Fiscal Adjustment and Poverty in Pakistan: a CGE-Based Analysis," Working Papers MPIA 2008-17, PEP-MPIA.
    14. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007. "Dynamic Effects of Agriculture Trade in the Context of Domestic and Global Liberalisation : A CGE Analysis for Pakistan," Trade Working Papers 22220, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    15. Ahmed, Saira & Ahmed, Vaqar & Sohail, Safdar, 2010. "Trade agreements between developing countries: a case study of Pakistan - Sri Lanka free trade agreement," MPRA Paper 29209, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007. "Quantifying the Impact of Development of the Transport Sector in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 779-802.
    17. Cororaton, Caesar B. & Orden, David, 2009. "Poverty Implications of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Price Distortions in Pakistan," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 52789, World Bank.
    18. World Bank, 2010. "Domestic Terms of Trade in Pakistan : Implications for Agricultural Pricing and Taxation Policies," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12448, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    National accounts; Social accounting matrix;

    JEL classification:

    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts

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