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Energy efficiency in Europe: trends, convergence and policy effectiveness

Author

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  • Arigoni Ortiz, Ramon
  • Bastianin, Andrea
  • Bigano, Andrea
  • Cattaneo, Cristina
  • Lanza, Alessandro
  • Manera, Matteo
  • Markandya, Anil
  • Plotegher, Michele
  • Sferra, Fabio

Abstract

This paper analyses energy efficiency in the EU, both in terms of reductions in energy intensity and in terms of physical indicators, looking at the differences among sectors and among Member States. We test econometrically the existence of convergence in energy intensity across Europe. We find a sensible catching–up of less performing countries, particularly in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors. Against this background, we analyse the role played by energy policies in EU Member States and we identify the most effective classes of policies and measures by means of a panel analysis of the EU-15 and Norway. It turns out that, in the residential sector, energy efficiency is particularly affected by heating regulations, by subsidies as well as tax reductions; in the transport sector, effective policies are tax reductions, incentives to eliminate old and polluting cars, car sharing, commuter plan and traffic management; in the industrial sector, mandatory technology standards, financing at low interest rate, information activities, education and outreach proved to be effective.

Suggested Citation

  • Arigoni Ortiz, Ramon & Bastianin, Andrea & Bigano, Andrea & Cattaneo, Cristina & Lanza, Alessandro & Manera, Matteo & Markandya, Anil & Plotegher, Michele & Sferra, Fabio, 2009. "Energy efficiency in Europe: trends, convergence and policy effectiveness," MPRA Paper 15763, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:15763
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martin Carree & Luuk Klomp, 1997. "Testing The Convergence Hypothesis: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 683-686, November.
    2. Tjalling C. Koopmans, 1963. "On the Concept of Optimal Economic Growth," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 163, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    3. Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mahlia, T.M.I. & Tohno, S. & Tezuka, T., 2013. "International experience on incentive program in support of fuel economy standards and labelling for motor vehicle: A comprehensive review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 18-33.
    2. de la Rue du Can, Stephane & Leventis, Greg & Phadke, Amol & Gopal, Anand, 2014. "Design of incentive programs for accelerating penetration of energy-efficient appliances," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 56-66.
    3. Le Pen, Yannick & Sévi, Benoît, 2010. "On the non-convergence of energy intensities: Evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 641-650, January.
    4. Mazzanti, M. & Musolesi, A., 2013. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: assessing the effect of policy and energy time events for advanced countries," Working Papers 2013-11, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
    5. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Antonio Musolesi, 2012. "Breaking Environmental Kuznets Curves. Evaluating Energy and Policy Time Events Effects on CO2 Trends for Advanced Countries," Working Papers 201214, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
    6. Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Montini, Anna, 2010. "Embedding the drivers of emission efficiency at regional level -- Analyses of NAMEA data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2457-2467, October.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    energy intensity; energy efficiency; convergence; European energy policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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