The symbiotic division of labour between heterogeneous districts. The development of ornamental horticulture in the Netherlands and Italy
This article focuses upon the historical development of three ornamental horticulture districts located in the Netherlands and in Italy. The aim of our investigation is to underline the features of a global division of labour, which is driven by the specialisation of production and retailing. Despite the lack of natural resources and unfavourable climate, the high labour and energy costs, the Dutch district and the horticulture cluster based in Netherlands hold a leading position. The historical development of the three districts is very similar, but the application of science and the role of local institutions are the explanatory factor of the evolutionary path of the cluster located in the Netherlands. The Italian districts analysed, which enjoy better endowed resources are now strongly dependent by the entire Dutch cluster.
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