Immigrant’s Characteristics and their different effects on bilateral trade. Evidence from Spain
This paper tests for the impact of immigration on bilateral trade using Spanish data from 1995 to 2003. It also explores some possible mechanisms behind this link. It uses a gravity equation for trade augmented with an immigrants stock variable and a set of control variables. The immigrants variable enters the estimated equation in different ways depending on immigrant relevant characteristics both individual and non individual-specific. Results show that there is a positive link between immigration and both exports and imports. We find evidence for the trade transaction cost channel but not for the preference one. The mechanisms behind this link are the information effect – immigrant’s additional information about product and about social and political institutions - and the social o ethnic network effect - immigrants with a medium level of education and those related to business activities are the one who have a positive effect on bilateral trade.
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- James E. Rauch, 1996.
"Networks versus Markets in International Trade,"
NBER Working Papers
5617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James E. Rauch, 2001. "Business and Social Networks in International Trade," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1177-1203, December.
- Keith Head & John Ries, 1998. "Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 47-62, February.
- Sourafel Girma & Zhihao Yu, 2002. "The link between immigration and trade: Evidence from the United Kingdom," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 138(1), pages 115-130, March.
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