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Sur l'impact socio-économique des pandémies en Afrique : Leçons tirées du COVID-19, de la trypanosomiase, du VIH, de la fièvre jaune, du choléra


  • Kohnert, Dirk

    (GIGA - German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg)


RÉSUMÉ & ABSTRACT : Au cours de l'histoire, rien n'a tué plus d'êtres humains que les maladies infectieuses et la fièvre hémorragique. Bien que les taux de mortalité dus aux pandémies aient chuté de près de 1 % par an dans le monde, environ 0,8 % par an, tout au long du XXe siècle, le nombre de nouvelles maladies infectieuses comme le Sars, le VIH et le Covid-19 a presque quadruplé par rapport au passé. En Afrique, on a signalé un total de 4 522 489 cas confirmés de COVID-19 et 119 816 décès, au 23 avril 2021. La pandémie a eu de graves répercussions sur les secteurs économique et social dans presque tous les pays africains. Il menace de pousser jusqu'à 58 millions de personnes dans l'extrême pauvreté. Cependant, outre les Africains pauvres, la pandémie de Covid affecte également la classe moyenne africaine en pleine croissance, c'est-à-dire environ 170 millions sur les 1,3 milliard d'Africains actuellement classés dans la classe moyenne. Près de huit millions d'entre eux pourraient être plongés dans la pauvreté à cause du coronavirus et de ses conséquences économiques. Ce revers se fera sentir pendant des décennies. En outre, dans l'histoire récente de l'Afrique, d'autres maladies infectieuses comme la trypanosomiase du bassin du Congo de 1896 à 1906 avec un nombre des morts de plus de 500 000 ainsi que l'épidémie de trypanosomose africaine en Ouganda de 1900 à 1920 avec 200 000 à 300 000 décès ont eu un impact négatif considérable sur les sociétés et économies africaines. En fait, d'autres pandémies, comme la fièvre jaune, le choléra, la méningite et la rougeole-sans parler du paludisme-ont contribué à des ralentissements économiques durables et affectent gravement le bien-être social pendant des décennies. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT : Throughout history, nothing has killed more human beings than infectious diseases. Although, death rates from pandemics dropped globally by about 0.8 % per year, all the way through the 20th century, the number of new infectious diseases like Sars, HIV and Covid-19 increased by nearly fourfold over the past century. In Africa, there were reported a total of 4,522,489 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 119,816 death, as of 23 April 2021. The pandemic impacted seriously on the economic and social sectors in almost all African countries. It is threatening to push up to 58 m people into extreme poverty. However, apart from the African poor, the Covid pandemic also affects the growing African middle class, i.e. about 170 million out of Africa’s 1.3 billion people currently classified as middle class. Nearly eight million of may be thrust into poverty because of the coronavirus and its economic aftermath. This setback will be felt for decades to come. Moreover, in recent African History also other infectouse diseases like the 1896–1906 Congo Basin Trypanosomiasis with a death-toll of over 500.000 as well as the 1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis epidemic with 200,000–300,000 death had tremendous negative impact on Africa’s societies and economies. Actually, other pandemics, like Yellow Fever, Cholera, Meningitis and Measles – not to mention Malaria - contributed to long-lasting economic downturns and seriously affect the social wellbeing for decades.

Suggested Citation

  • Kohnert, Dirk, 2021. "Sur l'impact socio-économique des pandémies en Afrique : Leçons tirées du COVID-19, de la trypanosomiase, du VIH, de la fièvre jaune, du choléra," AfricArxiv uda5j, Center for Open Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:osf:africa:uda5j
    DOI: 10.31219/

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Leach, Melissa & MacGregor, Hayley & Scoones, Ian & Wilkinson, Annie, 2021. "Post-pandemic transformations: How and why COVID-19 requires us to rethink development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    2. Brian Beach & Karen Clay & Martin Saavedra, 2022. "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Lessons for COVID-19," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 41-84, March.
    3. S H T, Kumudumali, 2020. "Impact of COVID-19 on Tourism Industry: A Review," MPRA Paper 102834, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Arthi, Vellore & Parman, John, 2021. "Disease, downturns, and wellbeing: Economic history and the long-run impacts of COVID-19," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    5. Jose Montes & Ani Silwal & David Newhouse & Frances Chen & Rachel Swindle & Siwei Tian, 2020. "How Much Will Poverty Rise in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2020?," World Bank Publications - Reports 33765, The World Bank Group.
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    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid
    • F52 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - National Security; Economic Nationalism
    • F54 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
    • H12 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Crisis Management

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