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Analyzing Three-Dimensional Panel Data of Forecasts

Author

Listed:
  • Kajal Lahiri
  • Antony Davies
  • Xuguang Sheng

Abstract

With the proliferation of quality multi-dimensional surveys, it becomes increasingly important for researchers to employ an econometric framework in which these data can be properly analyzed and put to their maximum use. In this chapter we have summarized such a framework developed in Davies and Lahiri (1995, 1999), and illustrated some of the uses of these multi-dimensional panel data. In particular, we have characterized the adaptive expectations mechanism in the context of broader rational and implicit expectations hypotheses, and suggested ways of testing one hypothesis over the others. We find that, under the adaptive expectations model, a forecaster who fully adapts to new information is equivalent to a forecaster whose forecast bias increases linearly with the forecast horizon. A multi-dimensional forecast panel also provides the means to distinguish between anticipated and unanticipated changes in the forecast target as well as volatilities associated with the anticipated and unanticipated changes. We show that a proper identification of anticipated changes and their perceived volatilities are critical to the correct understanding and estimation of forecast uncertainty. In the absence of such rich forecast data, researchers have typically used the variance of forecast errors as proxies for shocks. It is the perceived volatility of the anticipated change and not the (subsequently-observed) volatility of the target variable or the unanticipated change that should condition forecast uncertainty. This is because forecast uncertainty is formed when a forecast is made, and hence anything that was unknown to the forecaster when the forecast was made should not be a factor in determining forecast uncertainty. This finding has important implications on how to estimate forecast uncertainty in real time and how to construct a measure of average historical uncertainty, cf. Lahiri and Sheng (2010a). Finally, we show how the Rational Expectations hypothesis should be tested by constructing an appropriate variance-covariance matrix of the forecast errors when a specific type of multidimensional panel data is available.

Suggested Citation

  • Kajal Lahiri & Antony Davies & Xuguang Sheng, 2010. "Analyzing Three-Dimensional Panel Data of Forecasts," Discussion Papers 10-07, University at Albany, SUNY, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:nya:albaec:10-07
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    File URL: http://www.albany.edu/economics/research/workingp/2010/Oxford_Handbook_DLS_Paper.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Weale, Martin, 2006. "Survey Expectations," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
    2. Capistrán, Carlos & López-Moctezuma, Gabriel, 2014. "Forecast revisions of Mexican inflation and GDP growth," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 177-191.
    3. Jonas Dovern & Matthias Hartmann, 2017. "Forecast performance, disagreement, and heterogeneous signal-to-noise ratios," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 63-77, August.
    4. Graham Elliott & Ivana Komunjer & Allan Timmermann, 2008. "Biases in Macroeconomic Forecasts: Irrationality or Asymmetric Loss?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(1), pages 122-157, March.
    5. Capistrán, Carlos & Timmermann, Allan, 2009. "Forecast Combination With Entry and Exit of Experts," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 27(4), pages 428-440.
    6. Michael P Clements, 2014. "Assessing the Evidence of Macro- Forecaster Herding: Forecasts of Inflation and Output Growth," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2014-12, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    7. Graham Elliott & Allan Timmermann, 2016. "Economic Forecasting," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10740, June.
    8. Hans Christian Müller-Dröge & Tara M. Sinclair & H.O. Stekler, 2014. "Evaluating Forecasts of a Vector of Variables: a German Forecasting Competition," CAMA Working Papers 2014-55, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    9. Alexander HARIN, 2014. "Partially Unforeseen Events. Corrections and Correcting Formulae for Forecasts," Expert Journal of Economics, Sprint Investify, vol. 2(2), pages 69-79.

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