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Introductory Price as a Signal of Cost in a Model of Repeat Business

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  • Kyle Bagwell

Abstract

A two-period game between firms and consumers is considered. Firms are privately informed about their individual costs, and consumers must pay a search cost in order to learn a firm's current price. Consumers thus have incentive to use introductory price as a signal of cost and, hence, second period price. Recent refinements of the sequential equilibrium concept are employed, and the resulting equilibria involve low introductory prices (introductory sales).
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  • Kyle Bagwell, 1987. "Introductory Price as a Signal of Cost in a Model of Repeat Business," Discussion Papers 722, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:nwu:cmsems:722
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kreps, David M & Wilson, Robert, 1982. "Sequential Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 863-894, July.
    2. Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey, 1988. "Advertising and Limit Pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(1), pages 59-71, Spring.
    3. Irvine, F Owen, Jr, 1981. "An Optimal Middleman Firm Price Adjustment Policy: The "Short-Run Inventory-Based Pricing Policy."," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 19(2), pages 245-269, April.
    4. Varian, Hal R, 1980. "A Model of Sales," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(4), pages 651-659, September.
    5. Green, Edward J & Porter, Robert H, 1984. "Noncooperative Collusion under Imperfect Price Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 87-100, January.
    6. Williamson, Oliver E, 1979. "Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractural Relations," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 233-261, October.
    7. John Conlisk & Eitan Gerstner & Joel Sobel, 1984. "Cyclic Pricing by a Durable Goods Monopolist," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 99(3), pages 489-505.
    8. Bagwell, Kyle, 1990. "Informational product differentiation as a barrier to entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 207-223, June.
    9. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1986. "Price and Advertising Signals of Product Quality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 796-821, August.
    10. Joel Sobel, 1984. "The Timing of Sales," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 353-368.
    11. Kyle Bagwell, 1987. "Introductory Price as a Signal of Cost in a Model of Repeat Business," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(3), pages 365-384.
    12. Steven Salop, 1977. "The Noisy Monopolist: Imperfect Information, Price Dispersion and Price Discrimination," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(3), pages 393-406.
    13. Diamond, Peter A., 1971. "A model of price adjustment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 156-168, June.
    14. Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
    15. Shilony, Yuval, 1977. "Mixed pricing in oligopoly," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 373-388, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey, 1988. "Advertising and Limit Pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(1), pages 59-71, Spring.
    2. Kyle Bagwell & Michael Riordan, 1986. "Equilibrium Price Dynamics for an Experience Good," Discussion Papers 705, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    3. Srihari Govindan & Robert Wilson, 2009. "On Forward Induction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(1), pages 1-28, January.
    4. Shi, Shouyong, 2016. "Customer relationship and sales," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 483-516.
    5. Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey & Daniel F. Spulber, 1997. "Dynamic Retail Price and Investment Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(2), pages 207-227, Summer.
    6. Kyle Bagwell, 1987. "Introductory Price as a Signal of Cost in a Model of Repeat Business," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(3), pages 365-384.
    7. Mariano Tommasi, 1992. "Intertemporal Pricing in Search Markets, Customer Markets and Price Rigidity," UCLA Economics Working Papers 681, UCLA Department of Economics.
    8. David Genesove & Avi Simhon, 2015. "Seasonality and the Effect of Advertising on Price," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(1), pages 199-222, March.
    9. Judith A. Chevalier & Anil K. Kashyap & Peter E. Rossi, 2003. "Why Don't Prices Rise During Periods of Peak Demand? Evidence from Scanner Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 15-37, March.
    10. Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey, 1988. "Advertising, Coordination, and Signaling," Discussion Papers 787, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    11. Luís Cabral, 2012. "Lock in and switch: Asymmetric information and new product diffusion," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 375-392, September.
    12. Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey, 1994. "Advertising and Coordination," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(1), pages 153-171.
    13. Eric T. Anderson & Duncan I. Simester, 2004. "Long-Run Effects of Promotion Depth on New Versus Established Customers: Three Field Studies," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(1), pages 4-20, February.
    14. Clements, Matthew T., 2011. "Low quality as a signal of high quality," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 5, pages 1-22.
    15. Vanessa von Schlippenbach, 2008. "Complementarities, Below-Cost Pricing, and Welfare Losses," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 788, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    16. Kyle Bagwell & Michael Peters, 1988. "Dynamic Monopoly Power When Search is Costly," Discussion Papers 772, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    17. Govindan, Srihari & Wilson, Robert B., 2008. "Decision-Theoretic Forward Induction," Research Papers 1986, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    18. Sitzia, Stefania & Zizzo, Daniel John, 2012. "Price lower and then higher or price higher and then lower?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1084-1099.
    19. Azad Gholami, Reza & Sandal, Leif K. & Ubøe, Jan, 2016. "Channel Coordination in a Multi-period Newsvendor Model with Dynamic, Price-dependent Stochastic Demand," Discussion Papers 2016/6, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    20. Subramanian Balachander & Kannan Srinivasan, 1998. "Modifying Customer Expectations of Price Decreases for a Durable Product," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(6), pages 776-786, June.
    21. Meghan R. Busse & Duncan Simester & Florian Zettelmeyer, 2007. ""The Best Price You'll Ever Get" The 2005 Employee Discount Pricing Promotions in the U.S. Automobile Industry," NBER Working Papers 13140, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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