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Fiscal restructuring in the context of trade reform

Author

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  • Rajaraman, Indira

    () (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)

Abstract

Fiscal restructuring for India today must explicitly factor in the impact of trade tariff reform, which has resulted in an uncompensated drop in tax/GDP, of two percentage points (by actuals available upto 2001-02) relative to the pre-reform peak of 16 percent of GDP. The Twelfth Finance Commission is explicitly charged in its terms of reference with raising tax/GDP from present levels. The theoretical literature suggests that revenue compensation for lost trade revenues be sourced from domestic indirect taxes, and recommends a price-neutral destination-based VAT as the optimal instrument. In a federal setting, this will reduce relative tax collections at national level, where trade tariffs are levied, in favour of the subnational level, with which rights to levy domestic indirect taxes are typically shared. Possible resistance to such a restructuring, and the level from which it could originate will be a function of the history of collection shares in the federation; of the relative shares of discretionary and formulaic transfers from national to subnational level; and of the relative importance of redistributive criteria in formulaic transfers. The paper explores these issues for the Indian fiscal federation, and concludes that resistance to reduction in the revenue collection share of the centre is most likely to originate at subnational level. Coupled with the absence of any international empirical evidence on revenue enhancement from introducing a VAT, especially in low-income countries, fiscal restructuring in India has to seek ways by which to enhance revenue collections at the level of the centre rather than at the level of states.

Suggested Citation

  • Rajaraman, Indira, 2004. "Fiscal restructuring in the context of trade reform," Working Papers 04/7, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:npf:wpaper:04/7
    Note: Working Paper 7, 2004
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    File URL: http://www.nipfp.org.in/working_paper/wp04_nipfp_007.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Reint Gropp & Liam P. Ebrill & Janet Gale Stotsky, 1999. "Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 180, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Atkinson, A B & Sandmo, A, 1980. "Welfare Implications of the Taxation of Savings," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(359), pages 529-549, September.
    3. Leuthold, Jane H., 1991. "Tax shares in developing economies A panel study," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 173-185, January.
    4. Hatzipanayotou, Panos & Michael, Michael S. & Miller, Stephen M., 1994. "Win-win indirect tax reform : A modest proposal," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(1-2), pages 147-151.
    5. Tanzi, Vito & Zee, Howell H., 2000. "Tax Policy for Emerging Markets: Developing Countries," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 53(2), pages 299-322, June.
    6. Keen, Michael & Ligthart, Jenny E., 2002. "Coordinating tariff reduction and domestic tax reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 489-507, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Baunsgaard, Thomas & Keen, Michael, 2010. "Tax revenue and (or?) trade liberalization," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 563-577, October.
    2. Ajay Shah, 2008. "New issues in Indian macro policy," Working Papers id:1478, eSocialSciences.
    3. Richard M. Bird, "undated". "VAT in Ukraine: An Interim Report," International Tax Program Papers 0503 Revised, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    4. Paul E. Carrillo & M. Shahe Emran & Gabriela Aparicio, 2011. "Taxes, Prisons, and CFOs: The Effects of Increased Punishment on Corporate Tax Compliance in Ecuador," Working Papers 2011-02, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    5. Richard M. Bird, 2005. "Value-Added Taxes in Developing and Transitional Countries: Lessons and Questions," International Tax Program Papers 0505, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade tariff reform ; Fiscal restructuring ; Political economy of fiscal federations;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation

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