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CAViaR: Conditional Value at Risk by Quantile Regression

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  • Robert F. Engle
  • Simone Manganelli

Abstract

Value at Risk has become the standard measure of market risk employed by financial institutions for both internal and regulatory purposes. Despite its conceptual simplicity, its measurement is a very challenging statistical problem and none of the methodologies developed so far give satisfactory solutions. Interpreting Value at Risk as a quantile of future portfolio values conditional on current information, we propose a new approach to quantile estimation which does not require any of the extreme assumptions invoked by existing methodologies (such as normality or i.i.d. returns). The Conditional Value at Risk or CAViaR model moves the focus of attention from the distribution of returns directly to the behavior of the quantile. We postulate a variety of dynamic processes for updating the quantile and use regression quantile estimation to determine the parameters of the updating process. Tests of model adequacy utilize the criterion that each period the probability of exceeding the VaR must be independent of all the past information. We use a differential evolutionary genetic algorithm to optimize an objective function which is non-differentiable and hence cannot be optimized using traditional algorithms. Applications to simulated and real data provide empirical support to our methodology and illustrate the ability of these algorithms to adapt to new risk environments.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert F. Engle & Simone Manganelli, 1999. "CAViaR: Conditional Value at Risk by Quantile Regression," NBER Working Papers 7341, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7341
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    Cited by:

    1. Charle Augusto Llondoño, 2011. "Regresión del cuantil aplicada al modelo de redes neuronales artificiales. Una aproximación de la estructura CAViaR para el mercado de valores colombi," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 29(64), pages 62-109, July.
    2. Marco Bee & Fabrizio Miorelli, 2010. "Dynamic VaR models and the Peaks over Threshold method for market risk measurement: an empirical investigation during a financial crisis," Department of Economics Working Papers 1009, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
    3. Engle, Robert F. & Manganelli, Simone, 2001. "Value at risk models in finance," Working Paper Series 0075, European Central Bank.
    4. Michael Rockinger & Eric Jondeau, 2001. "Conditional Dependency of Financial Series: An Application of Copulas," Working Papers hal-00601478, HAL.
    5. Stavroyiannis, S. & Makris, I. & Nikolaidis, V. & Zarangas, L., 2012. "Econometric modeling and value-at-risk using the Pearson type-IV distribution," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 10-17.
    6. Eric Jondeau & Michael Rockinger, 2002. "Conditional Dependency of Financial Series: The Copula-GARCH Model," FAME Research Paper Series rp69, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
    7. Kudryavtsev, Andrey A., 2009. "Using quantile regression for rate-making," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 296-304, October.
    8. Rossi, E. & Spazzini, F., 2010. "Model and distribution uncertainty in multivariate GARCH estimation: A Monte Carlo analysis," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(11), pages 2786-2800, November.
    9. Cummins, J. David & Lalonde, David & Phillips, Richard D., 2004. "The basis risk of catastrophic-loss index securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 77-111, January.
    10. Michelle L. Barnes & Anthony W. Hughes, 2002. "A quantile regression analysis of the cross section of stock market returns," Working Papers 02-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    11. Bollerslev, Tim, 2001. "Financial econometrics: Past developments and future challenges," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 41-51, January.
    12. Aloui, Chaker & Hamida, Hela ben, 2014. "Modelling and forecasting value at risk and expected shortfall for GCC stock markets: Do long memory, structural breaks, asymmetry, and fat-tails matter?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 349-380.
    13. Trino-Manuel Ñíguez, 2008. "Volatility and VaR forecasting in the Madrid Stock Exchange," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 10(3), pages 169-196, September.
    14. Guidolin, Massimo & Timmermann, Allan, 2006. "Term structure of risk under alternative econometric specifications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 285-308.
    15. Marcelo Bianconi & Joe A. Yoshino, 2012. "Worldwide Commodities Sector Market-To-Book and Return on Equity Valuation," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0772, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
    16. Liu, Qingfu & An, Yunbi, 2014. "Risk contributions of trading and non-trading hours: Evidence from Chinese commodity futures markets," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 17-29.
    17. Sandrine Lardic & Valérie Mignon, 2004. "Robert F. Engle et Clive W.J. Granger prix Nobel d'économie 2003," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 114(1), pages 1-15.
    18. Ming-Yuan Leon Li & Hsiou-wei William Lin, 2004. "Estimating value-at-risk via Markov switching ARCH models - an empirical study on stock index returns," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(11), pages 679-691.
    19. Kritski, Oleg & Ulyanova, Marina, 2007. "Assessment of Multivariate Financial Risks of a Stock Share Portfolio," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 8(4), pages 3-17.
    20. Simone Manganelli & Lorenzo Cappiello & Bruno Gerard, 2004. "The Contagion Box: Measuring Co-Movements in Financial Markets by Regression Quantiles," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 77, Econometric Society.
    21. Costello, Alexandra & Asem, Ebenezer & Gardner, Eldon, 2008. "Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2154-2166, September.

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    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

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