Regional Trading Arrangement: Natural or Super-Natural?
This paper summarizes recent research by the authors on the effects of free trade areas (FTAs). Within our model, which emphasizes inter-continental transport costs, several conclusions arise. (1) FTAs are likely to be detrimental over a moderate range of parameter values, even if drawn along natural regional lines. (2) A small margin of preferences for neighbors is beneficial. (3) Optimal preferences depend on the parameters, particularly on transport costs. (4) If preferences are raised further, they enter the zone of negative returns to regionalization, and eventually the super-natural zone, where welfare is lower than under the MFN status quo. Estimates from the gravity model suggest the world system may already be in the super-natural zone. The core model leaves out many factors. But we have pursued a variety of extensions by now. Perhaps the two most important are generalizing the highly stylized model of trade (to include factor endowments), and relaxing the assumption that the inter-bloc level of tariffs remains fixed. In the latter case, allowing tariffs to be endogenous yields a much more optimistic outlook for the effects of FTAs.
|Date of creation:||Jan 1996|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as American Economic Review, Vol. 86, no.2 (May 1996).|
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- Frankel, Jeffrey & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-jin, 1995. "Trading blocs and the Americas: The natural, the unnatural, and the super-natural," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 61-95, June.
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- Shang-Jin Wei & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1998.
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IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(3), pages 440-453, September.
- Shang-Jin Wei & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1995. "Open Regionalism in a World of Continental Trade Blocs," NBER Working Papers 5272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Shang-Jin Wei, 1998. "Open Regionalism in a World of Continental Trade Blocs," IMF Working Papers 98/10, International Monetary Fund.
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