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Trade and Industrial Policy Reform in Latin America

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  • Sebastian Edwards

Abstract

This paper documents and evaluates the process of trade reforms in Latin America from the mid-1980s until 1993. It provides an analytical and historical discussion of the consequences of industrial policies in the region, from the early 1950s when import-substitution ideas were supported by the Economic Commission for Latin America to the 1990s when liberal regimes were embraced. A careful distinction is made between policies based on strict import substitution and policies that combine high and uneven import tariffs with export promotion. Additionally, the role of supporting policies to assure the success of trade liberalization is assessed. Important questions related to the sequencing of economic reform are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the proper sequencing of stabilization and trade reform policies. The extent of trade reform in Latin America is also discussed. The analysis concentrates on the evolution of productivity and exports, and it deals with several countries' experiences. The role of real exchange rates in the trade liberalization process is studied, and the recent trend towards appreciation observed in many countries in the region is scrutinized. Finally the paper contains an analysis of the recent attempts at reviving regional integration agreements, and of the consequences of the completion of GATT for Latin American nations.

Suggested Citation

  • Sebastian Edwards, 1994. "Trade and Industrial Policy Reform in Latin America," NBER Working Papers 4772, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4772 Note: ITI IFM
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mariam Camarero & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann & Cecilio Tamarit, 2016. "Trade Openness and Income: A Tale of Two Regions," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(3), pages 386-408, March.
    2. Roberto Alvarez & Rodrigo Fuentes, 2003. "Trade Reforms and Manufacturing Industry in Chile," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 210, Central Bank of Chile.
    3. Alvaro Forteza & Rossana Patrón, 2003. "Trade Liberalisation with Costly Adjustment," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 6, pages 95-125, May.
    4. Hester, Annette & Beaulieu, Eugene, 2000. "Trade Agreements in the Americas: Regionalism Converging to Globalization: Technical Annex," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 1(2).
    5. Berry, Albert, 1995. "The Social Challenge of the New Economic Era in Latin America," 1995: Economic Integration in the Western Hemisphere Symposium, June 7-9, 1995, San Jose, Costa Rica 50818, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    6. Alam, Ila M Semenick & Morrison, Andrew R, 2000. "Trade Reform Dynamics and Technical Efficiency: The Peruvian Experience," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 309-330, May.
    7. Perez-Aleman, Paola, 2000. "Learning, Adjustment and Economic Development: Transforming Firms, The State and Associations in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 41-55, January.
    8. Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2006. "Chile's Economic Growth," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 43(127), pages 5-48.
    9. Fernandes, Ana M., 2007. "Trade policy, trade volumes and plant-level productivity in Colombian manufacturing industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 52-71, March.
    10. Hester, Annette & Beaulieu, Eugene, 2000. "Trade Agreements in the Americas: Regionalism Converging to Globalization," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 1(2).
    11. Madani, Dorsati H., 2001. "South-South regional integration and industrial growth : the case of the Andean Pact," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2614, The World Bank.
    12. Restrepo-Estrada, Maria Isabel & Tena Junguito, Antonio, 2016. "The roots of regional trade in the Americas 1870 to 1950," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH 23304, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
    13. Ros, Jaime & Draisma, Joost & Lustig, Nora & Kate, Adriaan Ten, 1996. "Prospects for growth and the environment in Mexico in the 1990s," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 307-324, February.
    14. Rajapatirana, Sarath, 1994. "The evolution of trade treaties and trade creation : lessons for Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1371, The World Bank.
    15. Czarnecka-Gallas Marta, 2015. "The Institutional and External Factors Behind the Switch of a Country’s Economic Growth Strategy. The Case of the Brazilian Economic Policy," International Journal of Management and Economics, De Gruyter Open, vol. 45(1), pages 57-82, March.
    16. Nigel Nagarajan, 1998. "MERCOSUR and Trade Diversion: What Do The Import Figures Tell Us?," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 129, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    17. Madani, Dorsati H., 2001. "Regional integration and industrial growth among developing countries - the case of three ASEAN members," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2697, The World Bank.
    18. Laird, Sam, 1997. "MERCOSUR: Objectives and achievements," WTO Staff Working Papers TPRD-97-02, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    19. Laird, Sam, 1997. "WTO rules and good practice on export policy," WTO Staff Working Papers TPRD-97-01, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    20. Arbache, Jorge Saba, 2004. "Do Structural Reforms always Succeed? Lessons from Brazil," WIDER Working Paper Series 058, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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