IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/3660.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Earnings of Linguistic Minorities: French in Canada and Spanish in the United States

Author

Listed:
  • David E. Bloom
  • Gilles Grenier

Abstract

This paper measures and compares the relative earnings of French and English speakers in Canada, and of Spanish and English speakers in the U.S., in the 1970s and 1980s. In Canada, the earnings gap between French and English speakers narrowed over time, especially in Quebec. This decline appears to have been caused primarily by a sharp increase in the relative demand for French-speaking workers within Quebec during the 1970s and 1980s. By 1986, nearly all of the remaining earnings gap between French and English speakers in Canada could be accounted for by differences in annual hours worked, marital status, age, education, and region. By contrast, the earnings gap between Spanish and English speakers in the United States remained high during the 1970s and 1980s and is not largely accounted for by differences in a standard set of control variables. If anything, there appears to have been a slight deterioration in the relative earnings of Spanish speakers in the U.S. during the 1970s. The most likely explanation for this change is an increase in the relative supply of Spanish speakers, due mainly to high levels of immigration.

Suggested Citation

  • David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier, 1991. "The Earnings of Linguistic Minorities: French in Canada and Spanish in the United States," NBER Working Papers 3660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3660
    Note: LS
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w3660.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. McManus, Walter S, 1985. "Labor Market Costs of Language Disparity: An Interpretation of Hispanic Earnings Differences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 818-827, September.
    2. Grenier, Gilles, 1988. "Participation au marché du travail, revenus et langues au Québec : le cas des femmes mariées," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 64(1), pages 5-22, mars.
    3. Gilles Grenier, 1984. "The Effects of Language Characteristics on the Wages of Hispanic-American Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(1), pages 35-52.
    4. Hocevar, Toussaint, 1975. "Equilibria in Linguistic Minority Markets," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 337-357.
    5. Carliner, Geoffrey, 1980. "Wages, Earnings and Hours of First, Second, and Third Generation American Males," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(1), pages 87-102, January.
    6. Walter S. McManus, 1990. "Labor Market Effects of Language Enclaves: Hispanic Men in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(2), pages 228-252.
    7. McManus, Walter & Gould, William & Welch, Finis, 1983. "Earnings of Hispanic Men: The Role of English Language Proficiency," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(2), pages 101-130, April.
    8. Kossoudji, Sherrie A, 1988. "English Language Ability and the Labor Market Opportunities of Hispanic and East Asian Immigrant Men," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(2), pages 205-228, April.
    9. Evelina Tainer, 1988. "English Language Proficiency and the Determination of Earnings among Foreign-Born Men," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(1), pages 108-122.
    10. Geoffrey Carliner, 1981. "Wage Differences by Language Group and the Market for Language Skills in Canada," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 16(3), pages 384-399.
    11. Daniel M. Shapiro & Morton Stelcner, 1982. "Language Legislation and Male-Female Earnings Differentials in Quebec," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 8(1), pages 106-113, Winter.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lavoie, Marc & Saint-Germain, Maurice, 1991. "Disparités linguistiques de revenu au Canada selon la langue parlée à la maison," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 67(3), pages 356-380, septembre.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3660. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: () or (Joanne Lustig). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.