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Market Access and International Competition: A Simulation Study of 16K Random Access Memories


  • Richard E. Baldwin
  • Paul Krugman


This paper develops a model of international competition in an oligopoly characterized by strong learning effects. The model is quantified by calibrating its parameters to reproduce the US-Japanese rivalry in 16K R.A.Ms from 1978-1983. We then ask the following question: how much did the apparent closure of the Japanese market to imports affect Japan's export performance? A simulation analysis suggests that a protected home market was a crucial advantage to Japanese firms, which would otherwise have been uncompetitive both at home and abroad. We find, however, that Japan's home market protection nonetheless produced more costs than benefits for Japan.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard E. Baldwin & Paul Krugman, 1986. "Market Access and International Competition: A Simulation Study of 16K Random Access Memories," NBER Working Papers 1936, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1936
    Note: ITI IFM

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Brander, James & Krugman, Paul, 1983. "A 'reciprocal dumping' model of international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3-4), pages 313-321, November.
    2. Brander, James A., 1981. "Intra-industry trade in identical commodities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-14, February.
    3. A. M. Spence, 1981. "The Learning Curve and Competition," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(1), pages 49-70, Spring.
    4. Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 1983. "Learning-by-Doing and Market Performance," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 522-530, Autumn.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kala Krishna & Marie Thursby, 1997. "Whither Flat Panel Displays?," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of U.S. Trade Protection and Promotion Policies, pages 247-271 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Brainard, S. Lael & Martimort, David, 1997. "Strategic trade policy with incompletely informed policymakers," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 33-65, February.
    3. Fink, Carsten, 2000. "How stronger patent protection in India might affect the behavior of transnational pharaceutical industries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2352, The World Bank.
    4. Marin, Dalia, 1992. "Is the Export-Led.Growth Hypothesis Valid for Industrialized Countries?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 678-688, November.
    5. David Greenaway & Johan Torstensson, 1997. "Back to the future: Taking stock on intra-industry trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(2), pages 249-269, June.
    6. Engelmann, Dirk & Normann, Hans-Theo, 2007. "An experimental test of strategic trade policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 144-156, September.
    7. Réka Juhász, 2014. "Temporary Protection and Technology Adoption: Evidence from the Napoleonic Blockade," CEP Discussion Papers dp1322, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    8. Levinsohn, James, 1993. "Testing the imports-as-market-discipline hypothesis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1-2), pages 1-22, August.
    9. Yong-Yil Choi, 2004. "The macroeconomic impact of foreign labour influx into the industrialized nation state and the complementary policies," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(10), pages 1057-1063.
    10. Krugman, Paul R., 1989. "Industrial organization and international trade," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 1179-1223 Elsevier.
    11. Juhász, Réka, 2014. "Temporary protection and technology adoption: evidence from the Napoleonic blockade," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60697, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Kala Krishna & Kathleen Hogan & Phillip Swagel, 1989. "The Non-Optimality of Optimal Trade Policy: The U.S. Automobile Indust ry Revisited, 1979-1985," NBER Working Papers 3118, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Damien NEVEN & Paul SEABRIGHT, 1995. "European Industrial Policy: The Airbus Case," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9509, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
    14. Krishna, Kala & Erzan, Refik & Tan, Ling Hui, 1994. "Rent Sharing in the Multi-fibre Arrangement: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Apparel Imports from Hong Kong," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 62-73, February.
    15. Dermot Leahy & J. Peter Neary, 2010. "Oligopoly And Trade," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n215-10.pdf, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    16. Unni Pillai, 2013. "A Model of Technological Progress in the Microprocessor Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 877-912, December.
    17. Conconi, P., 2000. "Trade Bloc Formation Under Imperfect Competition," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 571, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    18. Richard Baldwin, 1989. "The Growth Effects of 1992," NBER Working Papers 3119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Ferreira, Pedro Cavalcanti, 2005. "Sobre a inexistente relação entre política industrial e comércio exterior," FGV/EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 601, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    20. Steven Berry & James Levinsohn & Ariel Pakes, 1995. "Voluntary Export Restraints on Automobiles: Evaluating a Strategic TradePolicy," NBER Working Papers 5235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Reimer, Jeffrey J. & Stiegert, Kyle W., 2006. "Evidence on Imperfect Competition and Strategic Trade Theory," Staff Paper Series 498, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    22. Melvyn Fuss & Steven Murphy & Leonard Waverman, 1992. "The State of the North American and Japanese Motor Vehicle Industries: A Partially Calibrated Model to Examine the Impacts of Trade Policy Changes," NBER Working Papers 4225, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. James Ted McDonald & Mita Bhattacharya & Harry Bloch, 2004. "Labour Productivity, Import Competition and Market Structure in Australian Manufacturing," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 48, Econometric Society.
    24. Kala Krishna, 1988. "High-Tech Trade Policy," NBER Chapters,in: Issues in US-EC Trade Relations, pages 285-314 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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