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The Supply and Demand for Safe Assets

Author

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  • Gary B. Gorton
  • Guillermo Ordoñez

Abstract

Safe assets are demanded to smooth consumption across states (both intertemporally and in cross-section). Some of these assets are supplied publicly (government bonds) and some are created and supplied privately (such as mortgagebacked securities and asset-backed securities). Private assets are created endogenously when the supply of government bonds is low. Private assets are used as collateral and come in heterogeneous quality. Financial fragility is the probability that a large amount of private assets are examined, some are found to be of low quality and then some firms cannot get loans. We characterize the government’s optimal supply of government bonds when considering their effects on the creation of private assets and on economy-wide fragility. We show that monetary and macroprudential policies cannot be run in isolation. When there are too many private assets the government should operate a Bond Exchange Facility that exchanges private assets for public safe assets.

Suggested Citation

  • Gary B. Gorton & Guillermo Ordoñez, 2013. "The Supply and Demand for Safe Assets," NBER Working Papers 18732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18732
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The safe asset girdle on liquidity
      by SFF in policy economics on 2016-09-23 05:51:03

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    Cited by:

    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Emmanuel Farhi, 2013. "A Model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM): Safety Traps and Economic Policy," Working Paper 70936, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    2. Han, Han, 2015. "Over-the-Counter Markets, Intermediation, and Monetary Policy," MPRA Paper 68709, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Robert J. Barro & Jesús Fernández-Villaverde & Oren Levintal & Andrew Mollerus, 2014. "Safe Assets," NBER Working Papers 20652, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Barro, Robert J. & Fern�ndez-Villaverde, Jes�s & Levintal, Oren & Mollerus, Andrew, 2017. "Safe Assets," CEPR Discussion Papers 12043, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
      • Robert Barro & Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde & Oren Levintal & Andrew Mollerus, 2017. "Safe Assets," PIER Working Paper Archive 17-008, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 10 May 2017.
    4. Grobéty, Mathieu, 2018. "Government debt and growth: The role of liquidity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 1-22.
    5. Emmanuel Farhi & Matteo Maggiori, 2018. "A Model of the International Monetary System," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 133(1), pages 295-355.
    6. Chemla, Gilles & Hennessy, Christopher, 2016. "Government as Borrower of First Resort," CEPR Discussion Papers 11362, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Soren Radde & Wei Cui, 2015. "Search-Based Endogenous Illiquidity and the Macroeconomy," 2015 Meeting Papers 546, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    8. Antonio Fatás & Atish R. Ghosh & Ugo Panizza & Andrea F Presbitero, 2019. "The Motives to Borrow," IMF Working Papers 19/101, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Xiong, Qizhou, 2018. "The liquidity premium of safe assets: The role of government debt supply," IWH Discussion Papers 11/2017, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    10. Dániel Horváth & Róbert Szini, 2015. "The safety trap – the financial market and macroeconomic consequences of the scarcity of safe assets," Financial and Economic Review, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary), vol. 14(1), pages 111-138.
    11. Engler, Philipp & Große Steffen, Christoph, 2016. "Sovereign risk, interbank freezes, and aggregate fluctuations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 34-61.
    12. Robert J. Barro, 2014. "Safe Assets," Working Papers 2014-28, Economic Research Institute, Bank of Korea.
    13. Hart, Oliver & Zingales, Luigi, 2014. "Banks Are Where The Liquidity Is," CEPR Discussion Papers 10017, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Matthias Fleckenstein & Francis A. Longstaff, 2018. "Floating Rate Money? The Stability Premium in Treasury Floating Rate Notes," NBER Working Papers 25216, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Hiroshi Ugai, 2015. "Transmission Channels and Welfare Implications of Unconventional Monetary Easing Policy in Japan," UTokyo Price Project Working Paper Series 060, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics, revised Dec 2015.
    16. Hiroshi Ugai, "undated". "Transmission Channels and Welfare Implications of Unconventional Monetary Easing Policy in Japan," Working Papers e102, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    17. Sylvia Xiao & Randall Wright & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2017. "Open Market Operations," 2017 Meeting Papers 345, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    18. Benigno, Pierpaolo & Robatto, Roberto, 2019. "Private money creation, liquidity crises, and government interventions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 42-58.
    19. Chemla, Gilles & Hennessy, Christopher A., 2016. "Government as borrower of first resort," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 1-16.
    20. Luis Araujo & Bernardo Guimaraes & Diego Rodrigues, . "Financial constraints and collateral crises," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics.
    21. Rocheteau, Guillaume & Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio, 2014. "Liquidity provision, interest rates, and unemployment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 80-101.
    22. Rocheteau, Guillaume & Wright, Randall & Xiaolin Xiao, Sylvia, 2018. "Open market operations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 114-128.
    23. Gary B. Gorton, 2016. "The History and Economics of Safe Assets," NBER Working Papers 22210, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Maya Eden & Benjamin Kay, 2015. "Safe Assets as Commodity Money," Working Papers 15-23, Office of Financial Research, US Department of the Treasury.
    25. Athanasios Geromichalos & Lucas Herrenbrueck & Sukjoon Lee, 2018. "Asset Safety versus Asset Liquidity," Working Papers 326, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General
    • E02 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Institutions and the Macroeconomy
    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services

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