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Quality competition versus price competition goods: An empirical classification

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  • Richard E. Baldwin
  • Tadashi Ito

Abstract

Based on the recent trade models of the Heterogeneous Firms Trade (HFT) model and the Quality Heterogeneous Firms Trade (QHFT) model, we classify export goods (at the HS 6-digit level of disaggregation) by quality and price competition. We find a high proportions of quality-competition goods for the major EU countries and lower proportions for Canada, Australia and China. However, the overlap of these quality-competition goods is not large, which suggests that characteristics of export goods are substantially different across countries at the same HS 6-digit code.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard E. Baldwin & Tadashi Ito, 2008. "Quality competition versus price competition goods: An empirical classification," NBER Working Papers 14305, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14305
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2011. "Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 60-88, May.
    2. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    3. Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2008. "Specialization across varieties and North–South competition [‘Multi-Product Firms and Trade Liberalization’]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23(53), pages 52-91.
    4. Baldwin, Richard, 1988. "Hyteresis in Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 773-785, September.
    5. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Angela Cheptea & Lionel Fontagné & Soledad Zignago, 2014. "European export performance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(1), pages 25-58, February.
    2. Matthieu Crozet & Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "Quality Sorting and Trade: Firm-level Evidence for French Wine," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 609-644.
    3. Benedetti Fasil, Cristiana & Borota, Teodora, 2013. "World trade patterns and prices: The role of productivity and quality heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 68-81.
    4. Daniele Curzi & Lucia Pacca & Alessandro Olper, 2013. "Estimating Food Quality from Trade Data: An Empirical Assessment," LICOS Discussion Papers 33913, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    5. Bilanakos, Christos & Heywood, John S. & Sessions, John & Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos, 2018. "Does demand for product quality increase worker training?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 159-177.
    6. Nanno Mulder & Rodrigo Paiilacar & Soledad Zignago, 2009. "Market Positioning of Varieties in World Trade: is Latin America Losing Out on Asia?," Working Papers 2009-09, CEPII research center.
    7. Rollo, Valentina, 2012. "Determinants of Tanzanian export prices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6225, The World Bank.
    8. Unjung Whang, 2016. "Skilled-Labor Intensity Differences Across Firms, Endogenous Product Quality, and Wage Inequality," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 251-292, April.
    9. Tadashi Ito & Toshihiro Okubo, 2016. "The Impact of the Euro on the Quality of Trade: Evidence from the European Union," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(4), pages 506-527, July.
    10. Sugita, Yoichi & Teshima, Kensuke & Seira, Enrique, 2016. "Assortative matching of exporters and importers," IDE Discussion Papers 610, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    11. Robert C. Feenstra & John Romalis, 2014. "International Prices and Endogenous Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 129(2), pages 477-527.
    12. Michael J. Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2012. "Quality Competition and Pricing-to-Market: A Unified Framework for the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 860-877, January.
    13. Matthieu Crozet & Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "Quality Sorting and Trade: Firm-level Evidence for French Wine," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 609-644.
    14. Curzi, Daniele & Pacca, Lucia, 2015. "Price, quality and trade costs in the food sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 147-158.
    15. Michael Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2009. "Quality competition, Pricing-To-Market and Non-Tariff measures: A Unified Framework For the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Working Papers 2009-03, American University, Department of Economics.
    16. Michael J. Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2012. "Quality Competition and Pricing-to-Market: A Unified Framework for the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 78(3), pages 860-877, January.
    17. Osbat, Chiara & Jochem, Alex & Özyurt, Selin & Tello, Patry & Bragoudakis, Zacharias & Micallef, Brian & Sideris, Dimitris & Papadopoulou, Niki & Ajevskis, Viktors & Krekó, Judit & Gaulier, Guillaume , 2012. "Competitiveness and external imbalances within the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 139, European Central Bank.
    18. Benjamin R. Mandel, 2013. "Chinese exports and U.S. import prices," Staff Reports 591, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    19. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/10148 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Matthieu Crozet & Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "Quality Sorting and Trade: Firm-level Evidence for French Wine," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 609-644.
    21. Ito, Tadashi, 2012. "Revisiting the determinants of unit values," IDE Discussion Papers 356, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    22. Bilanakosa, Christos & Heywood, John S. & Sessions, John & Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos, 2017. "Worker Training and Quality Competition," GLO Discussion Paper Series 137, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    23. Antoniades, Alexis, 2015. "Heterogeneous Firms, Quality, and Trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 263-273.
    24. Susan N. Houseman & Christopher J. Kurz & Paul Lengermann & Benjamin R. Mandel, 2010. "Offshoring bias in U.S. manufacturing: implications for productivity and value added," International Finance Discussion Papers 1007, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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